Geothermal desalination refers to the process of using geothermal energy to power the process of converting salt water to fresh water. The process is considered economically efficient, and while overall environmental impact is uncertain, it has potential to be more environmentally friendly compared to conventional desalination options. Geothermal desalination plants have already been successful in various regions, and there is potential for further development to allow the process to be used in an increased number of water scarce regions.
Desalination is the process of removing minerals from seawater to convert it into fresh water. Desalination is divided into two categories in terms of processes: processes driven by thermal energy and processes driven by mechanical energy. Geothermal desalination uses geothermal energy as the thermal energy source to drive the desalination process.
There are two types of geothermal desalination: direct and indirect.