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Concept# Localisation d'Anderson

Résumé

En physique de la matière condensée, la localisation d'Anderson est l'absence de diffusion des ondes dans un milieu désordonné. Ce phénomène est nommé d'après le physicien américain P. W. Anderson, qui a été le premier à suggérer que la localisation d'électrons est possible dans un treillis potentiel, à condition que le degré de hasard (de désordre) dans le treillis soit assez grand. Ce phénomène peut être réalisé par exemple dans un semi-conducteur contenant des impuretés ou des défauts.
En une et deux (en l'absence de couplage spin-orbite) dimensions, les états sont toujours localisés dès que le désordre est présent.En trois dimensions (ou en deux dimension en présence de couplage spin-orbite), l'intensité du désordre doit dépasser un certain seuil (appelé désordre critique) pour que tous les états soient localisés. Pour un désordre plus faible que le désordre critique, il existe un seuil de mobilité. Les états d'énergie E inférieure a

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PHYS-310: Solid state physics II

This course gives an introduction into Solid State Physics (crystal structure of materials, electronic and magnetic properties, thermal and electronic transport). The course material is at the level of Ashcroft & Mermin and is addressed to the 3rd year students in Physics.

PHYS-637: Electron Matter Interactions in Transmission Electron Microscopy

This course will present the fundamentals of electronâmatter interactions, as occuring in the energy range available in modern transmission electron microscopes, namely 60-300 keV electrons. Diffraction and high-resolution image formation as well as electron energy-loss spectrometry will be covere

PHYS-462: Quantum transport in mesoscopic systems

This course will focus on the electron transport in semiconductors, with emphasis on the mesoscopic systems. The aim is to understand the transport of electrons in low dimensional systems, where even particles with statistics different than fermions and bosons will be discussed.

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A polariton is a quasiparticle formed from the coupling of a confined photon in a cavity to electronic excitation, like exciton in a semiconductor. This dissertation reports on series of experiments in confined polariton interaction by design, fabrication, and characterization of semiconductor microcavity structures operating in strong or weak coupling regime.
In the first part of the thesis, we mainly concentrate on the optical study of the 2D microcavity sample, including spin-dependent lower-upper polariton cross interactions by pump-probe spectroscopy technique, supported by theoretical analyses and numerical simulations based on Gross-Pitaevskii equations. In particular, we present a scattering resonance behavior via an exciton molecule (biexciton) when polaritons from both the upper and lower branches with anti-parallel spins are involved through a polaritonic cross Feshbach resonance. This demonstration will permit the control of the polariton interbranch scattering.
The second part of the thesis is dedicated to the design and fabrication of the potentials where the photonic part of polaritons is confined laterally by adjusting the thickness of the cavity layer locally in so-called mesa structures. By engineering a periodic lattice of mesas on a two-dimensional microcavity, it is possible to couple confined polariton modes of nearby mesas to establish an optical lattice analogous to the crystalline semiconductorsâ electronic band structures. We especially demonstrate the localization of light with a lasing mode at the edge of the Brillouin zone in a two-dimensional triangular lattice. We produce a self-trapping of light by optically inducing a local breaking of the strong-coupling regime of excitons to photons. In the weak coupling regime, we control the confined modes by the shape of the generated defect. We also reveal a controllable localization degree and experimental signature of the Anderson localization in microcavity polaritons by inducing positional disorder in the triangular lattice.
The last part is devoted to the fabrication of sub-micron size mesas to enhance polariton interaction by confining them tightly and discuss the quantum correlation of polaritons by a Hanbury Brown and Twiss (HBT) setting toward polariton blockade.

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Since their discovery, graphene and other 2D materials have become a subject of intense research in condensed matter physics. Especially the vast possibilities of combining those materials into heterostructures are promising for the discovery of novel physical phenomena. The heterostructures accessible through state-of-the-art techniques have suitably clean interfaces between the layers.
Graphene has gained a lot of attention due to its remarkable mechanical stability and extremely high electron mobility. However, the zero bandgap of graphene is a major bottleneck for implementing this 2D material into most electronic applications. The ability to tune the properties of graphene by proximity effects has shifted the focus of graphene research towards the combination of graphene with other van der Waals materials. The main objective of the present thesis was to explore for two different types of graphene-based van der Waals heterostructure whether fingerprints of electronic proximity effects can be traced in their low temperature magnetotransport properties.
The first part of the thesis deals with heterostructures of graphene and Bi2Te2Se (BTS). The strong spin-orbit coupling of BTS makes it a three-dimensional topological insulator with topological surface states which are protected by time-reversal symmetry. At the same time, BTS is promising to exert a pronounced spin-orbit proximity effect on graphene, and thereby to open a band gap and/or introduce a spin texture in the latter. The graphene/BTS heterostructures were fabricated by the direct growth of BTS on graphene to ensure a clean interface between both materials and correspondingly a good electronic coupling between them. Analysis of the weak localization effect observed in the magnetoconductivity revealed the presence of enhanced SOC in the proximitized graphene.
The second part of the thesis focuses on heterostructures wherein graphene is combined with a-RuCl3 which has recently gained a lot of attention as a potential quantum spin liquid system. Previous studies on graphene/a-RuCl3 heterostructures found an unusual temperature evolution of the quantum oscillation amplitude, whose origin remained unclear. The magnetotransport data collected in this thesis point toward two possible origins for this behavior, namely spin fluctuations associated with the magnetic transition into an antiferromagnetic phase at the Néel temperature of approximately 7 K, and the hybridization-induced formation of heavy (flat) bands, both of which are likely to depend on the a-RuCl3 layer thickness. In addition, heterostructures comprising an a-RuCl3 monolayer were found to display a unusual gate dependence of the quantum oscillations, further corroborating the importance of the a-RuCl3 thickness.

This thesis is devoted to the study of the effect of disorder on low-dimensional weakly interacting Bose gases. In particular, the disorder triggers a quantum phase transition in one dimension at zero temperature that is investigated here through the study of the long-range behaviour of the one-body density matrix. An algebraic spatial decay of the coherence marks the quasicondensate, whereas, in the case of strong disorder, an exponential decay is recovered and it characterizes the insulating Bose-glass phase. This analysis is performed using an extended Bogoliubov theory to treat low dimensional Bose gases within a density-phase approach. A systematic numerical study allowed to draw the phase diagram of 1D weakly interacting bosons. The phase boundary obeys two different power laws between interaction and disorder strength depending on the regime of the gas where the transition occurs. These relations can be explained by means of scaling arguments valid in the white noise limit and in the Thomas-Fermi regime of the Bose gas. The phase transition to a quasicondensed phase comes along with the onset of superfluidity: the inspection of the superfluid fraction of the gas is consistent with these predictions for the boundary. The finite temperature case and the scenario in two dimensions are briefly discussed. The quantum phase transition is caused by low-energy phase fluctuations that destroy the quasi-long-range order characterizing the uniform system. Within the approach presented here, the phase fluctuations are identified as the low-lying Bogoliubov modes. Their properties have been investigated in detail to understand which changes trigger the phase transition and we found that the transition to the insulating phase is accompanied by a diverging density of states and a localization length, measured through the inverse participation ratio, that diverges as a power-law with power – 1 for vanishing energy. The fragmentation of the gas is also studied: this notion is very often associated with the onset of the insulating phase. The characterization of the density fragmentation is performed by analyzing the probability distribution of the density. A density profile is defined as fragmented when the probability distribution at vanishing density is finite or divergent and this happens for a gas in the Bose-glass phase. On the contrary, the superfluid phase is characterized by a zero limiting probability of having vanishing densities. This definition is derived analytically, and confirmed by a numerical study. This fragmentation criterion is particularly suited for detecting the phase transition in experiments: when a harmonic trap is included, the transition to the insulating phase can be extracted from the statistics of the local density distribution.