Gana-Sangha (Sanskrit: गणसङ्घ) or Gana-Rajya (Sanskrit: गणराज्य) was a type of clan structure oligarchy in ancient India.
The word (ˈgʌnə; Sanskrit: गण) in Sanskrit and Pali means group of community. It can also be used to refer to a body of attendants and can refer to any assemblage or association of men formed for the attainment of the same aims, denotes the gathering of a given community. The word sangha in Sanskrit means association, assembly, company or community. For instance, in Buddhism, sangha refers to the monastic community of bhikkhus (monks) and bhikkhunis (nuns).
The phrase gana sangha can be translated as (rule by) tribal assembly. In ancient Buddhist texts like the Anguttara Nikaya which make frequent reference to the great states in ancient India, the texts often use the phrase to refer a type of oligarchical rule, contrast to monarchy (साम्राज्य saamarajya in Sanskrit).
Among the Mahajanapadas, the sixteen great states in anc