Johan Christian Schreiner (25 May 1903 – 8 October 1967) was a Norwegian historian. He was a professor at the University of Oslo, and his speciality was the Middle Ages.
He was born in Drøbak as a son of historian Kristian Schreiner (1874–1957) and physician and anthropologist Alette Schreiner (1873–1951), and grew up in Kristiania. He was married briefly to his youth friend, later editor, Minister of Social Affairs, and member of Parliament Kirsten Hansteen, from 1928, and from 1930 he was married to Astri Høst. While he was a student he was a member of the radical political organization Mot Dag.
Through his brother Fredrik, Johan Schreiner was an uncle of economist and civil servant Per Schreiner.
Schreiner finished his secondary education in 1921, and enrolled at the University of Oslo where he majored in history in 1927. In 1933 he defended his doctorate, over timber export and trade politics in the early 17th century (