Résumé
In software project management, software testing, and software engineering, verification and validation (V&V) is the process of checking that a software system meets specifications and requirements so that it fulfills its intended purpose. It may also be referred to as software quality control. It is normally the responsibility of software testers as part of the software development lifecycle. In simple terms, software verification is: "Assuming we should build X, does our software achieve its goals without any bugs or gaps?" On the other hand, software validation is: "Was X what we should have built? Does X meet the high-level requirements?" Verification and validation are not the same thing, although they are often confused. Boehm succinctly expressed the difference as Verification: Are we building the product right? Validation: Are we building the right product? "Building the product right" checks that the specifications are correctly implemented by the system while "building the right product" refers back to the user's needs. In some contexts, it is required to have written requirements for both as well as formal procedures or protocols for determining compliance. Ideally, formal methods provide a mathematical guarantee that software meets its specifications. Building the product right implies the use of the Requirements Specification as input for the next phase of the development process, the design process, the output of which is the Design Specification. Then, it also implies the use of the Design Specification to feed the construction process. Every time the output of a process correctly implements its input specification, the software product is one step closer to final verification. If the output of a process is incorrect, the developers are not building the product the stakeholders want correctly. This kind of verification is called "artifact or specification verification". Building the right product implies creating a Requirements Specification that contains the needs and goals of the stakeholders of the software product.
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