Concept

Adapalène

Résumé
Adapalene is a third-generation topical retinoid primarily used in the treatment of mild-moderate acne, and is also used off-label to treat keratosis pilaris as well as other skin conditions. Studies have found adapalene is as effective as other retinoids, while causing less irritation. It also has several advantages over other retinoids. The adapalene molecule is more stable compared to tretinoin and tazarotene, which leads to less concern for photodegradation. It is also chemically more stable compared to the other two retinoids, allowing it to be used in combination with benzoyl peroxide. Due to its effects on keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, adapalene is superior to tretinoin for the treatment of comedonal acne and is often used as a first-line agent. The Swiss company Galderma sells adapalene under the brand-name product Differin. Per the recommendations of the Global Alliance on Improving Outcomes of Acne, retinoids such as adapalene are considered first-line therapy in acne treatment and are to be used either independently or in conjunction with benzoyl peroxide and/or an antimicrobial agent, like clindamycin, for maximum efficacy. Furthermore, adapalene, like other retinoids, increases the efficacy and penetration of other topical acne medications that are used in conjunction with topical retinoids as well as hastens the improvement of the post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation caused by acne. In the long term, it can be used as maintenance therapy. Adapalene has the unique ability to inhibit keratinocyte differentiation and decrease keratin deposition. This property makes adapalene an effective treatment for keratosis pilaris and callus. It may be used by men undergoing foreskin restoration to reduce excess keratin that forms a layer on the exterior of the human penis after circumcision. Other non-FDA approved indications that have been reported in the literature include treatment of warts, molluscum contagiosum, Darier disease, photoaging, pigmentary disorders, actinic keratoses and alopecia areata.
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