Concept

Conduit (musique)

Résumé
The conductus (plural: conducti) was a sacred Latin song in the Middle Ages, one whose poetry and music were newly composed. It is non-liturgical since its Latin lyric borrows little from previous chants. The conductus was northern French equivalent of the versus, which flourished in Aquitaine. It was originally found in the twelfth-century Aquitanian repertories. But major collections of conducti were preserved in Paris. The conductus typically includes one, two, or three voices. A small number of the conducti are for four voices. Stylistically, the conductus is a type of discant (i.e. note-against-note polyphony). Its form can be strophic or through-composed form. The genre flourished from the early twelfth century to the middle of thirteenth century. It was one of the principal types of vocal composition of the ars antiqua period of medieval music history. The conductus was most likely sung while the lectionary was carried from its place of safekeeping to the place from which it was to be read. But the origins of the term "conductus" remain obscure. The noun is derived from the verb conducere, which can mean to lead, guide, or escort. Thus according to one hypothesis, the genre was called "conductus" because it served to accompany a procession. For example, according to the record of manuscript in the Institución Colombina, Seville, the conductus Salve festa dies was used for the same role of procession as the ancient hymn. The hymn with the same name was sung during the procession to the altar. But conducere can also mean "to bring together" or "join together." Thus according to another hypothesis, the genre was called "conductus" because it brings sequence or hymn together. The conductus is based on a condensed version of a sequence or hymn. For instance, the conductus Orienti oriens is derived from the sequence Noster cetus iste letus. The genre of the conductus most likely originated in the south of France around 1150 and reached its peak development during the activity of the Notre Dame School in the early thirteenth century.
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