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Personne# Yu Gao

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Pascal Frossard, Yu Gao, Thomas Maugey

In free viewpoint video systems, where a user has the freedom to select a virtual view from which an observation image of the 3D scene is rendered, the scene is commonly represented by texture and depth images from multiple nearby viewpoints. In such representation, there exists data redundancy across multiple dimensions: a single visible 3D voxel may be represented by pixels in multiple viewpoint images (inter-view redundancy), a pixel patch may recur in a distant spatial region of the same image due to self-similarity (inter-patch redundancy), and pixels in a local spatial region tend to be similar (inter-pixel redundancy). It isimportant to exploit these redundancies for effective multiview video compression. Existing schemes attempt to eliminate them via the traditional video coding paradigm of hybrid signal prediction/residual coding; typically, the encoder codes explicit information to guide the decoder to the location of the most similar block along with the signal differential. In this paper, we argue that, given the inherent redundancy in the representation, the decoder can often independently recover missing data via inpainting without explicit directions from encoder, resulting in lower coding overhead. Specifically, after pixels in a reference view are projected to a target view via depth image-based rendering (DIBR) at the decoder, the remaining holes in the target view are filled via an inpainting process in a block-by-block manner. First, blocks are ordered in terms of difficulty-to-inpaint by the decoder. Then, explicit instructions are only sent for the reconstruction of the most difficult blocks. In particular, the missing pixels are explicitly coded via a graph Fourier transform (GFT) or a sparsification procedure using DCT, which leads to low coding cost. For the blocks that are easy to inpaint, the decoder independently completes missing pixels via template-based inpainting. We implemented our encoder-driven inpainting strategy as an extension of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). Experimental results show that our coding strategy can outperform comparable implementation of HEVC by up to 0.8dB in reconstructed image quality

Pascal Frossard, Yu Gao, Thomas Maugey

Compression of dynamic 3D geometry obtained from depth sensors is challenging, because noise and temporal inconsistency inherent in acquisition of depth data means there is no one-to-one correspondence between sets of 3D points in consecutive time instants. In this paper, instead of coding 3D points (or meshes) directly, we propose to represent an object’s 3D geometry as a collection of tile images. Specifically, we first place a set of image tiles around an object. Then, we project the object’s 3D geometry onto the tiles that are interpreted as 2D depth images, which we subsequently encode using a modified multiview image codec tuned for piecewise smooth signals. The crux of the tile image framework is the “optimal” placement of image tiles—one that yields the best tradeoff in rate and distortion. We show that if only planar and cylindrical tiles are considered, then the optimal placement problem for K tiles can be mapped to a tractable piecewise linear approximation problem. We propose an efficient dynamic programming algorithm to find an optimal solution to the piecewise linear approximation problem. Experimental results show that optimal tiling outperforms naive tiling by up to 35% in rate reduction, and graph transform can further exploit the smoothness of the tile images for coding gain.

2014Adnan Ali, Yu Gao, Jonathan Graves, Mike Machielsen, David Pfefferlé

The neutral beam deposition model in the BEAMS3D code is validated against neutral beam attenuation data from Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X). A set of experimental discharges where the neutral beam injection system of W7-X was utilized were reconstructed. These discharges scanned the magnetic configurations and plasma densities of W7-X. The equilibrium reconstructions were performed using STELLOPT which calculates three-dimensional self-consistent ideal magnetohydrodynamic equilibria and kinetic profiles. These reconstructions leveraged new capabilities to incorporate electron cyclotron emission and x-ray imaging diagnostics in the STELLOPT code. The reconstructed equilibria and profiles served as inputs for BEAMS3D calculations of neutral beam deposition in W7-X. It is found that if reconstructed kinetic profiles are utilized, good agreement between measured and simulated beam attenuation is found. As deposition models provide initial conditions for fast-ion slowing down calculations, this work provides a first step towards validating our ability to predict fast ion confinement in stellarators.