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Personne# Andrea Giometto

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Méthode expérimentale

Les méthodes expérimentales scientifiques consistent à tester la validité d'une hypothèse, en reproduisant un phénomène (souvent en laboratoire) et en faisant varier un paramètre. Le paramètre que l

Espèce

vignette| redresse=1.2| L'espèce est l'unité de base de la classification du vivant.
Dans les sciences du vivant, l’espèce (du latin species, « type » ou « apparence ») est le taxon de base de la sys

Écosystème

thumb|Tapis de Salix glauca sur le Scoresby Sund (Groenland) avec un crâne de bœuf musqué au premier plan, deux espèces caractéristiques de la toundra.
En écologie, un écosystème est un ensemble form

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Stéphane Laurent Escrig, Andrea Giometto, Emilio Marañón, Amos Maritan, Anders Meibom, Andrea Rinaldo, Silvia Zaoli

Kleiber's law describes the scaling of metabolic rate with body size across several orders of magnitude in size and across taxa and is widely regarded as a fundamental law in biology. The physiological origins of Kleiber's law are still debated and generalizations of the law accounting for deviations from the scaling behavior have been proposed. Most theoretical and experimental studies of Kleiber's law, however, have focused on the relationship between the average body size of a species and its mean metabolic rate, neglecting intraspecific variation of these 2 traits. Here, we propose a theoretical characterization of such variation and report on proof-of-concept experiments with freshwater phytoplankton supporting such framework. We performed joint measurements at the single-cell level of cell volume and nitrogen/carbon uptake rates, as proxies of metabolic rates, of 3 phytoplankton species using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry ( NanoSIMS) and stable isotope labeling. Common scaling features of the distribution of nutrient uptake rates and cell volume are found to hold across 3 orders of magnitude in cell size. Once individual measurements of cell volume and nutrient uptake rate within a species are appropriately rescaled by a function of the average cell volume within each species, we find that intraspecific distributions of cell volume and metabolic rates collapse onto a universal curve. Based on the experimental results, this work provides the building blocks for a generalized form of Kleiber's law incorporating intraspecific, correlated variations of nutrient-uptake rates and body sizes.

Andrea Giometto, Amos Maritan, Andrea Rinaldo, Silvia Zaoli

Scaling laws in ecology, intended both as functional relationships among ecologically relevant quantities and the probability distributions that characterize their occurrence, have long attracted the interest of empiricists and theoreticians. Empirical evidence exists of power laws associated with the number of species inhabiting an ecosystem, their abundances, and traits. Although their functional form appears to be ubiquitous, empirical scaling exponents vary with ecosystem type and resource supply rate. The idea that ecological scaling laws are linked has been entertained before, but the full extent of macroecological pattern covariations, the role of the constraints imposed by finite resource supply, and a comprehensive empirical verification are still unexplored. Here, we propose a theoretical scaling framework that predicts the linkages of several macroecological patterns related to species’ abundances and body sizes. We show that such a framework is consistent with the stationary-state statistics of a broad class of resource-limited community dynamics models, regardless of parameterization and model assumptions. We verify predicted theoretical covariations by contrasting empirical data and provide testable hypotheses for yet unexplored patterns. We thus place the observed variability of ecological scaling exponents into a coherent statistical framework where patterns in ecology embed constrained fluctuations.

2017, , , ,

The Species-Area Relation (SAR), which describes the increase in the number of species S with increasing area A, is under intense scrutiny in contemporary ecology, in particular to probe its reliability in predicting the number of species going extinct as a direct result of habitat loss. Here, we focus on the island SAR, which is measured across a set of disjoint habitat patches, and we argue that the SAR portrays an average trend around which fluctuations are to be expected due to the stochasticity of community dynamics within the patches, external perturbations, and habitat heterogeneity across different patches. This probabilistic interpretation of the SAR, though already implicit in the theory of island biogeography and manifest in the scatter of data points in plots of empirical SAR curves, has not been investigated systematically from the theoretical point of view. Here, we show that the two main contributions to SAR fluctuations, which are due to community dynamics within the patches and to habitat heterogeneity between different patches, can be decoupled and analyzed independently. To investigate the community dynamics contribution to SAR fluctuations, we explore a suite of theoretical models of community dynamics where the number of species S inhabiting a patch emerges from diverse ecological and evolutionary processes, and we compare stationary predictions for the coefficient of variation of S, i.e. the fluctuations of S with respect to the mean. We find that different community dynamics models diverge radically in their predictions. In island biogeography and in neutral frameworks, where fluctuations are only driven by the stochasticity of diversification and extinction events, relative fluctuations decay when the mean increases. Computational evidence suggests that this result is robust in the presence of competition for space or resources. When species compete for finite resources, and mass is introduced as a trait determining species' birth, death and resource consumption rates based on empirical allometric scalings, relative fluctuations do not decay with increasing mean S due to the occasional introduction of new species with large resource demands causing mass extinctions in the community. Given this observation, we also investigate the contribution of external disturbance events to fluctuations of S in neutral community dynamics models and compare this scenario with the community dynamics in undisturbed non-neutral models. Habitat heterogeneity within a single patch, in the context of metapopulation models, causes variability in the number of coexisting species which proves negligible with respect to that caused by the stochasticity of the community dynamics. The second contribution to SAR fluctuations, which is due to habitat heterogeneity among different patches, introduces corrections to the coefficient of variation of S. Most importantly, inter-patches heterogeneity introduces a constant, lower bound on the relative fluctuations of S equal to the coefficient of variation of a habitat variable describing the heterogeneity among patches. Because heterogeneity across patches is inevitably present in natural ecosystems, we expect that the relative fluctuations of S always tend to a constant in the limit of large mean S or large patch area A, with contributions from community dynamics, inter-patches heterogeneity or both. We provide a theoretical framework for modelling these two contributions and we show that both can affect significantly the fluctuations of the SAR. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

2019