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Personne# Amos Sironi

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Résolution de problème

vignette|Résolution d'un problème mathématique.
La résolution de problème est le processus d'identification puis de mise en œuvre d'une solution à un problème.
Méthodologie
Dans l'ind

Apprentissage automatique

L'apprentissage automatique (en anglais : machine learning, « apprentissage machine »), apprentissage artificiel ou apprentissage statistique est

Separable filter

A separable filter in can be written as product of two more simple filters.
Typically a 2-dimensional convolution operation is separated into two 1-dimensional filters. This reduces the computational

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Pascal Fua, Sean Lewis Hill, Xiang Li, Amos Sironi, Yuhang Wang, Jian Yang, Jian Zhou

BigNeuron is an open community bench-testing platform with the goal of setting open standards for accurate and fast automatic neuron tracing. We gathered a diverse set of image volumes across several species that is representative of the data obtained in many neuroscience laboratories interested in neuron tracing. Here, we report generated gold standard manual annotations for a subset of the available imaging datasets and quantified tracing quality for 35 automatic tracing algorithms. The goal of generating such a hand-curated diverse dataset is to advance the development of tracing algorithms and enable generalizable benchmarking. Together with image quality features, we pooled the data in an interactive web application that enables users and developers to perform principal component analysis, t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding, correlation and clustering, visualization of imaging and tracing data, and benchmarking of automatic tracing algorithms in user-defined data subsets. The image quality metrics explain most of the variance in the data, followed by neuromorphological features related to neuron size. We observed that diverse algorithms can provide complementary information to obtain accurate results and developed a method to iteratively combine methods and generate consensus reconstructions. The consensus trees obtained provide estimates of the neuron structure ground truth that typically outperform single algorithms in noisy datasets. However, specific algorithms may outperform the consensus tree strategy in specific imaging conditions. Finally, to aid users in predicting the most accurate automatic tracing results without manual annotations for comparison, we used support vector machine regression to predict reconstruction quality given an image volume and a set of automatic tracings. This resource describes a collection of neurons from a variety of light microscopy-based datasets, which can serve as a gold standard for testing automated tracing algorithms, as shown by comparison of the performance of 35 algorithms.

Automatically extracting linear structures from images is a fundamental low-level vision problem with numerous applications in different domains. Centerline detection and radial estimation are the first crucial steps in most Computer Vision pipelines aiming to reconstruct linear structures. Existing techniques rely either on hand-crafted filters, designed to respond to ideal profiles of the linear structure, or on classification-based approaches, which automatically learn to detect centerline points from data. Hand-crafted methods are the most accurate when the content of the image fulfills the ideal model they rely on. However, they lose accuracy in the presence of noise or when the linear structures are irregular and deviate from the ideal case. Machine learning techniques can alleviate this problem. However, they are mainly based on a classification framework. In this thesis, we show that classification is not the best formalism to solve the centerline detection problem. In fact, since the appearance of a centerline point is very similar to the points immediately next to it, the output of a classifier trained to detect centerlines presents low localization accuracy and double responses on the body of the linear structure. To solve this problem, we propose a regression-based formulation for centerline detection. We rely on the distance transform of the centerlines to automatically learn a function whose local maxima correspond to centerline points. The output of our method can be used to directly estimate the location of the centerline, by a simple Non-Maximum Suppression operation, or it can be used as input to a tracing pipeline to reconstruct the graph of the linear structure. In both cases, our method gives more accurate results than state-of-the-art techniques on challenging 2D and 3D datasets. Our method relies on features extracted by means of convolutional filters. In order to process large amount of data efficiently, we introduce a general filter bank approximation scheme. In particular, we show that a generic filter bank can be approximated by a linear combination of a smaller set of separable filters. Thanks to this method, we can greatly reduce the computation time of the convolutions, without loss of accuracy. Our approach is general, and we demonstrate its effectiveness by applying it to different Computer Vision problems, such as linear structure detection and image classification with Convolutional Neural Networks. We further improve our regression-based method for centerline detection by taking advantage of contextual image information. We adopt a multiscale iterative regression approach to efficiently include a large image context in our algorithm. Compared to previous approaches, we use context both in the spatial domain and in the radial one. In this way, our method is also able to return an accurate estimation of the radii of the linear structures. The idea of using regression can also be beneficial for solving other related Computer Vision problems. For example, we show an improvement compared to previous works when applying it to boundary and membrane detection. Finally, we focus on the particular geometric properties of the linear structures. We observe that most methods for detecting them treat each pixel independently and do not model the strong relation that exists between neighboring pixels. As a consequence, their output is geometrically inconsistent. In this thesis, we address this problem by considering the projection of the score map returned by our regressor onto the set of all geometrically admissible ground truth images. We propose an efficient patch-wise approximation scheme to compute the projection. Moreover, we provide conditions under which the projection is exact. We demonstrate the advantage of our method by applying it to four different problems.

Pascal Fua, Vincent Lepetit, Amos Sironi, Engin Türetken

Finding the centerline and estimating the radius of linear structures is a critical first step in many applications, ranging from road delineation in 2D aerial images to modeling blood vessels, lung bronchi, and dendritic arbors in 3D biomedical image stacks. Existing techniques rely either on filters designed to respond to ideal cylindrical structures or on classification techniques. The former tend to become unreliable when the linear structures are very irregular while the latter often has difficulties distinguishing centerline locations from neighboring ones, thus losing accuracy. We solve this problem by reformulating centerline detection in terms of a \emph{regression} problem. We first train regressors to return the distances to the closest centerline in scale-space, and we apply them to the input images or volumes. The centerlines and the corresponding scale then correspond to the regressors local maxima, which can be easily identified. We show that our method outperforms state-of-the-art techniques for various 2D and 3D datasets. Moreover, our approach is very generic and also performs well on contour detection. We show an improvement above recent contour detection algorithms on the BSDS500 dataset.