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Personne# Vijay Kartik

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Réduction de la dimensionnalité

vignette|320x320px|Animation présentant la projection de points en deux dimensions sur les axes obtenus par analyse en composantes principales, une méthode populaire de réduction de la dimensionnalité

Nonlinear dimensionality reduction

Nonlinear dimensionality reduction, also known as manifold learning, refers to various related techniques that aim to project high-dimensional data onto lower-dimensional latent manifolds, with the

Espace (notion)

L'espace se présente dans l'expérience quotidienne comme une notion de géométrie et de physique qui désigne une étendue, abstraite ou non, ou encore la perception de cette étendue. Conceptuellement,

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Astronomy is one of the oldest sciences known to humanity. We have been studying celestial objects for millennia, and continue to peer deeper into space in our thirst for knowledge about our origins and the universe that surrounds us. Radio astronomy -- observing celestial objects at radio frequencies -- has helped push the boundaries on the kind of objects we can study. Indeed, some of the most important discoveries about the structure of our universe, like the cosmic microwave background, and entire classes of objects like quasars and pulsars, were made using radio astronomy. Radio interferometers are telescopes made of multiple antennas spread over a distance. Signals detected at different antennas are combined to provide images with much higher resolution and sensitivity than with a traditional single-dish radio telescope. The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is one such radio interferometer, with plans to have antennas separated by as much as 3000,km. In its quest for ever-higher resolution and ever-wider coverage of the sky, the SKA heralds a data explosion, with an expected acquisition rate of 5,terabits per second. The high data rate fed into the pipeline can be handled with a two-pronged approach -- (i) scalable, parallel imaging algorithms that fully utilize the latest computing technologies like accelerators and distributed clusters, and (ii) dimensionality reduction methods that embed the high-dimensional telescope data to much smaller sizes without losing information and guaranteeing accurate recovery of the images, thereby enabling imaging methods to scale to big data sizes and alleviating heavy loads on pipeline buffers without compromising on the science goals of the SKA.
In this thesis we propose fast and robust dimensionality reduction methods that embed data to very low sizes while preserving information present in the original data. These methods are presented in the context of compressed sensing theory and related signal recovery techniques. The effectiveness of the reduction methods is illustrated by coupling them with advanced convex optimization algorithms to solve a sparse recovery problem. Images thus reconstructed from extremely low-sized embedded data are shown to have quality comparable to those obtained from full data without any reduction. Comparisons with other standard `data compression' techniques in radio interferometry (like averaging) show a clear advantage in using our methods which provide higher quality images from much lower data sizes. We confirm these claims on both synthetic data simulating SKA data patterns as well as actual telescope data from a state-of-the-art radio interferometer. Additionally, imaging with reduced data is shown to have a lighter computational load -- smaller memory footprint owing to the size and faster iterative image recovery owing to the fast embedding.
Extensions to the work presented in this thesis are already underway. We propose an `on-line' version of our reduction methods that works on blocks of data and thus can be applied on-the-fly on data as they are being acquired by telescopes in real-time. This is of immediate interest to the SKA where large buffers in the data acquisition pipeline are very expensive and thus undesirable. Some directions to be probed in the immediate future are in transient imaging, and imaging hyperspectral data to test computational load while in a high resolution, multi-frequency setting.

Ming Jiang, Vijay Kartik, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Yves Wiaux

In the context of next-generation radio interferometers, we are facing a big challenge of how to economically process data. The classical dimensionality reduction technique, averaging visibilities on time, may dilute fast radio transients (FRT). We propose a robust fast approximate SVD-based dimensionality reduction method for FRT imaging. For each time slice of FRT imaging, our dimensionality reduction defines a linear embedding operator to reduce the space spanned by the left singular vectors of the measurement operator and this operator can be fast obtained via a weighted fft on adjoint measurement operator instead of expensive SVD. The preliminary results showcase that the proposed dimensionality reduction can simultaneously reduce the data significantly and recover FRT correctly, while the averaging technique causes the FRT dilution problem.

2019, , ,

Data dimensionality reduction in radio interferometry can provide savings of computational resources for image reconstruction through reduced memory footprints and lighter computations per iteration, which is important for the scalability of imaging methods to the big data setting of the next-generation telescopes. This article sheds new light on dimensionality reduction from the perspective of compressed sensing theory and studies its interplay with imaging algorithms designed in the context of convex optimization. We propose a post-gridding linear data embedding to the space spanned by the left singular vectors of the measurement operator, providing a dimensionality reduction below image size. This embedding preserves the null space of the measurement operator and hence also its sampling properties as per compressed sensing theory. We show that this can be approximated by first computing the dirty image and then applying a weighted subsampled discrete Fourier transform to obtain the final reduced data vector. This Fourier dimensionality reduction model ensures a fast implementation of the full measurement operator, essential for any iterative image reconstruction method. The proposed reduction also preserves the i.i.d. Gaussian properties of the original measurement noise. For convex optimization-based imaging algorithms, this is key to justify the use of the standard L2-norm as the data fidelity term. Our simulations confirm that this dimensionality reduction approach can be leveraged by convex optimization algorithms with no loss in imaging quality relative to reconstructing the image from the complete visibility data set. Reconstruction results in simulation settings with no direction dependent effects or calibration errors show promising performance of the proposed dimensionality reduction. MATLAB code implementing the proposed reduction method is available on GitHub.