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Publication# A new relaying scheme for cheap wireless relay nodes

Résumé

In this paper we will propose a relaying scheme for wireless multi-hop networks. It is based on collaboration of intermediate relays at network layer to forward useful side information in place of dumbly forwarding packets. In our scheme we assume that the nodes are not able to benefit from any interference cancellation mechanism. The channels from sender to relay nodes and from sender to receiver are logically separated through a temporal scheduling. This model is realistic for many practical scenarios in the context of wireless networks. We will show in this paper the information theoretic bounds and show that they are achievable using practical codes. The proposed coding scheme is simulated in realistic scenarios. The obtained results show a remarkable improvement in throughput, relay load and reliability compared to network using classical routing approach.

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In this thesis, we address two seemingly unrelated problems, namely routing in large wireless ad hoc networks and comparison based search in image databases. However, the underlying problem is in essence similar and we can use the same strategy to attack those two problems. In both cases, the intrinsic complexity of the problem is in some sense low, and we can exploit this fact to design efficient algorithms. A wireless ad hoc network is a communication network consisting of wireless devices such as for instance laptops or cell phones. The network does not have any fixed infrastructure, and hence nodes which cannot communicate directly over the wireless medium must use intermediate nodes as relays. This immediately raises the question of how to select the relay nodes. Ideally, one would like to find a path from the source to the destination which is as short as possible. The length of the found path, also called route, typically depends on how much signaling traffic is generated in order to establish the route. This is the fundamental trade-off that we will investigate in this thesis. As mentioned above, we try and exploit the fact that the communication network is intrinsically low-dimensional, or in other words has low complexity. We show that this is indeed the case for a large class of models and that we can design efficient algorithms for routing that use this property. Low dimensionality implies that we can well embed the network in a low-dimensional space, or build simple hierarchical decompositions of the network. We use both those techniques to design routing algorithms. Comparison based search in image databases is a new problem that can be defined as follows. Given a large database of images, can a human user retrieve an image which he has in mind, or at least an image similar to that image, without going sequentially through all images? More precisely, we ask whether we can search a database of images only by making comparisons between images. As a case in point, we ask whether we can find a query image q only by asking questions of the type "does image q look more like image A or image B"? The analogous to signaling traffic for wireless networks would here be the questions we can ask human users in a learning phase anterior to the search. In other words, we would like to ask as few questions as possible to pre-process and prepare the database, while guaranteeing a certain quality of the results obtained in the search phase. As the underlying image space is not necessarily metric, this raises new questions on how to search spaces for which only rank information can be obtained. The rank of A with respect to B is k, if A is B's kth nearest neighbor. In this setup, low-dimensionality is analogous to the homogeneity of the image space. As we will see, the homogeneity can be captured by properties of the rank relationships. In turn, homogeneous spaces can be well decomposed hierarchically using comparisons. Further, it allows us to design good hash functions. To design efficient algorithms for these two problems, we can apply the same techniques mutatis mutandis. In both cases, we relied on the intuition that the problem has a low intrinsic complexity, and that we can exploit this fact. Our results come in the form of simulation results and asymptotic bounds.

We consider the issue of which criteria to use when evaluating the design of a wireless multihop network. It is known, and we illustrate in this paper, that maximizing the total capacity, or transport capacity, leads to gross imbalance and is not suitable. An alternative, which is often used in networking, is to consider the max-min fair allocation of rates, or of transport rates per node. We apply max-min fairness to the class of wireless, multi-hop networks for which the rate of a wireless link is an increasing functions of signal-to-noise ratio. This class includes CDMA and UWB. We show that, for a network in this class, the max-min fair allocation of bit or transport rates always gives the same rate to all flows. We show on one example that such an allocation is highly undesirable when the network is asymmetric. Another form of fairness, utility fairness, does not appear to have the same problem.

2003We consider the question of what performance metric to maximize when designing adhoc wireless network protocols such as routing or MAC. We focus on maximizing rates under battery lifetime and power constraints. Commonly used metrics are total capacity (in the case of cellular networks) and transport capacity (in the case of adhoc networks). However, it is known in traditional wired networking that maximizing total capacity conflicts with fairness, and this is why fairness oriented rate allocations, such as max-min fairness, are often used. We review this issue for wireless ad-hoc networks. Indeed, the mathematical model for wireless networks has a specificity that makes some of the findings different. It has been reported in the literature on Ultra Wide Band that gross unfairness occurs when maximizing total capacity or transport capacity, and we confirm by a theoretical analysis that this is a fundamental shortcoming of such metrics in wireless ad-hoc networks, as it is for wired networks. The story is different for max-min fairness. Although it is perfectly viable for a wired network, it is much less so in our setting. We show that, in the limit of long battery lifetime, the max-min allocation of rates always leads to strictly equal rates, regardless of the MAC layer, network topology, choice of routes and power constraints. This is due to the ``solidarity

2004