**Êtes-vous un étudiant de l'EPFL à la recherche d'un projet de semestre?**

Travaillez avec nous sur des projets en science des données et en visualisation, et déployez votre projet sous forme d'application sur GraphSearch.

Publication# Flow Boiling Pressure Drop and Heat Transfer of Refrigerants in Multi-microchannel Evaporators under Steady and Transient States

Résumé

Multi-microchannel evaporators used for the cooling of high heat flux electronics have been of interest to both industry and academia for more than a decade. Such interest has sparked a large number of research studies on the flow boiling pressure drop and heat transfer in multi-microchannel evaporators. However, there are still several aspects that need to be addressed in order to better understand the complicated flow boiling process taking place in such micro-evaporators. Firstly, the mechanism governing flow boiling heat transfer in microchannels is arguable; secondly, the availability of fine-resolution local heat transfer data is very limited; thirdly, over-simplified heat conduction models are used in the literature to reduce such local heat transfer data; finally, rare attention has been taken on the thermal behavior of such micro-evaporators under transient status.\ Inspired by the forgoing aspects, an extensive experimental program has been conducted to study the flow boiling pressure drop and heat transfer of refrigerants in multi-microchannel evaporators under steady and transient status. For the steady-state tests, three fluids ( R245fa, R236fa and R1233zd(E)) were tested in two multi-microchannel evaporators. The silicon microchannel evaporators were 10 mm long and 10 mm wide, having 67 parallel channels, each 100 $\times$ 100 $\mu$m$^2$, separated by a fin with a thickness of 50 $\mu m$. Two types of micro-orifices (25 and 50 $\mu$m$^2$ in width) were placed at the entrance of each channel to stabilize the two-phase flow and to obtain good flow distribution. The test section backside temperatures were measured by a self-calibrated infrared (IR) camera. The operating conditions for stable flow boiling tests were: mass fluxes from 1250 to 2750 kg~m$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$, heat fluxes from 20 to 64 W cm$^{-2}$, inlet subcoolings of 5.5, 10 and 15 K, and nominal outlet saturation temperatures of 31.5, 35 and 40 $^{\circ}\mathrm{C}$. The resulting maximum exit vapor quality at the outlet manifold was 0.51. \ The steady-state experimental data were reduced by solving a 3D inverse heat conduction problem to obtain the local heat transfer coefficients on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The required fluid temperature in the subcooled region was calculated from the local energy balance, while that in the saturated flow boiling region came from the general pressure drop model proposed in this manuscript based on the present data base. According to the present data base of fine-resolution local heat transfer coefficients, a new flow pattern based prediction model was developed here starting from the subcooled region all the way through the annular flow regime. This new flow pattern based model predicted the total local heat transfer database (1,941,538 local points) well with a MAE of 14.2% and with 90.1% of the data predicted within $\pm$30%. It successfully tracks the experimental trends without any jumps in predictions when changing flow patterns.\ For the transient tests, an extensive experimental study was conducted to investigate the base temperature response of multi-microchannel evaporators under transient heat loads, including cold startups and periodic step variations in heat flux using two different test sections and two coolants (R236fa and R245fa) for a wide variety of test conditions. In addition, a transient flow boiling test under a heat flux disturbance was performed, and a new method of solving the transient 3D inverse heat conduction problem was proposed to obtain the local transient flow boiling heat transfer coefficients.

Official source

Cette page est générée automatiquement et peut contenir des informations qui ne sont pas correctes, complètes, à jour ou pertinentes par rapport à votre recherche. Il en va de même pour toutes les autres pages de ce site. Veillez à vérifier les informations auprès des sources officielles de l'EPFL.

Concepts associés

Chargement

Publications associées

Chargement

Concepts associés (16)

Transfert thermique

vignette|alt=Autour d'un feu, des mains reçoivent sa chaleur par rayonnement (sur le côté), par convection (au-dessus de ses flammes) et par conduction (à travers un ustensile en métal).|Les modes de

Capteur de flux thermique

vignette|273x273px|Exemple d'un capteur de flux thermique, HFP01. Ce capteur est généralement utilisé dans la mesure de la résistance thermique et du flux de chaleur sur les enveloppes de construction

Heat flux

In physics and engineering, heat flux or thermal flux, sometimes also referred to as heat flux density, heat-flow density or heat flow rate intensity, is a flow of energy per unit area per unit time

Publications associées (100)

Chargement

Chargement

Chargement

A theoretical and numerical model to predict film condensation heat transfer in mini, micro and ultra micro-channels of different internal shapes is presented in this thesis. The model is based on a finite volume formulation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations and it includes the contributions of the unsteady terms, surface tension, axial shear stresses, gravitational forces and wall thermal conduction. Notably, interphase mass transfer and near-to-wall effects (disjoining pressure) are also included. This model has been validated versus various benchmark cases and versus published experimental results from three different laboratories, predicting micro-channel heat transfer data with an average error of 20 % or better. The conjugate heat transfer problem arising from the coupling between the thin film fluid dynamics, the heat transfer in the condensing fluid and the heat conduction in the channel wall has been studied and analyzed. The work has focused on the effects of three external wall boundary conditions: a uniform wall temperature, a non uniform wall heat flux and single-phase convective cooling. The thermal axial and peripheral conduction occurring in the wall of the channel can affect the behavior of the condensate film, not only because it redistributes the heat, but also because the annular laminar film condensation process is dependent on the local saturation to wall temperature difference. When moving from mini to micro and ultra-micro channels, the results shows that the axial conduction effects can become very important in the prediction of the wall temperature profile and they can not be ignored. Under these conditions, the overall performances of the heat exchanger become dependent not only on the fluid properties and the operative conditions but also on the geometry and wall material. Results obtained for steady state conditions are presented for circular, elliptical and flattened shape cross sections for R-134a and ammonia, for hydraulic diameters between 10 µm and 3 mm. Microscale condensation finds applications in heat pipes and compact heat exchangers for electronic equipment or spacecraft thermal control, in automotive condensers, in residential air conditioning and in refrigeration applications: the influence of the steady or unsteady gravitational field and of the inertia forces on the flow field and consequently on the heat transfer performances is investigated allowing the model to be applied as a design and optimization tool for enhanced heat exchangers.

Etienne Costa-Patry, Bruno Michel, Jonathan Olivier, John Richard Thome

This article is the second part of a study on flow boiling of R236fa and R245fa. This part presents the heat transfer coefficients obtained in a 12.7 mm silicon evaporator composed of 135 microchannels with 85 mu m wide and 560 mu m high channels separated by 46 mu m wide fins. There were 35 local heaters and temperature measurements arranged in a 5 x 7 array. The heat transfer results were uniform in the lateral direction to the flow (attributable to the inlet restriction) and a function of the heat flux, vapor quality and mass flux. The steady-state standard deviation of the local base temperature was less than 0.2 degrees C, inferring that the boiling process was very stable. For wall heat fluxes over 45 kW/m(2), the heat transfer coefficient curves were V-shaped, decreasing for intermittent flow regimes and increasing for annular flow. The three-zone model of Thome et al. (2004) was the best heat transfer prediction method when setting the dryout thickness equal to the channel roughness. (c) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Improving the energy efficiency of cooling systems can contribute to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. Currently, most microelectronic applications are air-cooled. Switching to two-phase cooling systems would decrease power consumption and allow for the reuse of the extracted heat. For this type of application, multi-microchannel evaporators are thought to be well adapted. However, such devices have not been tested for a wide range of operating conditions, such that their thermal response to the high non-uniform power map typically generated by microelectronics has not been studied. This research project aims at clarifying these gray areas by investigating the behavior of the two-phase flow of different refrigerants in silicon and copper multi-microchannel evaporators under uniform, non-uniform and transient heat fluxes operating conditions. The test elements use as a heat source a pseudo-chip able to mimic the behavior of a CPU. It is formed by 35 independent sub-heaters, each having its own temperature sensor, such that 35 temperature and 35 heat flux measurements can be made simultaneously. Careful measurements of each pressure drop component (inlet, microchannels and outlet) found in the micro-evaporators showed the importance of the inlet and outlet restriction pressure losses. The overall pressure drop levels found in the copper test section were low enough to possibly be driven by a thermosyphon system. The heat transfer coefficients measured for uniform heat flux conditions were very high and typically followed a V-shape curve. The first branch was associated to the slug flow regime and the second to the annular flow regime. By tracking the minimum level of heat transfer, a transition criteria between the regimes was established, which included the effect of heat flux on the transition. Then for each branch, a different prediction method was used to form the first flow pattern-based prediction method for two-phase heat transfer in microchannels. A non-uniform heat flux creates important temperature gradients in the evaporator, such that the data reduction procedure needs to be adapted to include heat spreading within the evaporator. To do so, a robust multi-dimensional thermal conduction scheme was developed. Once these effects were taken into consideration, the local heat transfer coefficients provided by two-phase flow were found to be the same for uniform and non-uniform heat fluxes, allowing the flow pattern-based method to be extended to non-uniform heat flux conditions. Lastly, with proper control of the mass flow, transient heat flux situations were well handled by the micro-evaporators.