**Êtes-vous un étudiant de l'EPFL à la recherche d'un projet de semestre?**

Travaillez avec nous sur des projets en science des données et en visualisation, et déployez votre projet sous forme d'application sur GraphSearch.

Publication# Design of the First HTS Single-Coil Demonstrator of GaToroid Toroidal Gantry for Hadron Therapy

Luca Bottura, Bertrand Dutoit, Enrico Felcini, Jérôme Harray

*IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, *2021

Article

Article

Résumé

The design and construction of compact and lightweight gantries for hadron therapy are essential steps toward wider accessibility to this cancer treatment. The use of a high-field steady-state toroidal gantry, i.e., GaToroid, represents an attractive alternative to the state-of-the-art with the potential of significantly reducing size and weight of present installations. It is interesting to conceive the use of High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) conductors to reach magnetic fields beyond 8 T at relatively high temperatures, decreasing the beam bending radius and, at the same time, avoiding complex cryogenics systems in the hospitals. The construction of such a machine requires several steps of prototyping and this manuscript presents the design of the first GaToroid single-coil demonstrator, wound with ReBCO conductors. The demonstrator is a scaled version of a full-scale GaToroid coil, with the conductors spaced into four planar windings, i.e., grades, and wound as a double pancake. Two operating regimes are foreseen to test the demonstrator at different temperatures, currents and magnetic fields. The cable geometry, composed of four ReBCO non-twisted tapes, was validated through 1D quench propagation studies in both regimes, and the hot spot temperature is well below 100 K. Furthermore, three-dimensional mechanical simulations allowed to estimate the stress state on the conductor, as well as to define the impregnation strategy of the demonstrator. The answers provided by the manufacturing, powering and test of the proposed demonstrator can provide valuable insights for the future construction of full-scale GaToroid coils.

Official source

Cette page est générée automatiquement et peut contenir des informations qui ne sont pas correctes, complètes, à jour ou pertinentes par rapport à votre recherche. Il en va de même pour toutes les autres pages de ce site. Veillez à vérifier les informations auprès des sources officielles de l'EPFL.

Concepts associés

Chargement

Publications associées

Chargement

Publications associées (57)

Chargement

Chargement

Chargement

Concepts associés (13)

Champ magnétique

En physique, dans le domaine de l'électromagnétisme, le champ magnétique est une grandeur ayant le caractère d'un champ vectoriel, c'est-à-dire caractérisée par la donnée d'une norme, d’une directio

Supraconducteur à haute température

Un supraconducteur à haute température (en anglais, high-temperature superconductor : high- ou HTSC) est un matériau présentant une température critique de supraconductivité relativement élevée par r

Température

La température est une grandeur physique mesurée à l’aide d’un thermomètre et étudiée en thermométrie. Dans la vie courante, elle est reliée aux sensations de froid et de chaud, provenant du transfe

In spin systems, geometrical frustration describes the impossibility of minimizing simultaneously all the interactions in a Hamiltonian, often giving rise to macroscopic ground-state degeneracies and emergent low-temperature physics. In this thesis, combining tensor network (TN) methods to Monte Carlo (MC) methods and ground-state energy lower bound approaches, we study two-dimensional frustrated classical Ising models. In particular, we focus on the determination of the residual entropy in the presence of farther-neighbor interactions in kagome lattice Ising antiferromagnets (KIAFM).In general, using MC to determine the residual entropy is a significant challenge requiring ad-hoc updates, a precise evaluation of the energy at all temperatures to allow for thermodynamic integration, and a good control of the finite-size scaling behavior. As an alternative, we turn to TNs; however, we argue that, in the presence of frustration and macroscopic ground-state degeneracy, standard algorithms fail to converge at low temperatures on the usual TN formulation of partition functions. Inspired by methods for constructing ground-state energy lower bounds, we propose a systematic way to find the ground-state local rule using linear programming. Characterizing the rules as tiles that can be tessellated to form ground states of the model gives rise to a natural contractible TN formulation of the partition function. This method provides a direct access to the ground-state properties of frustrated models and, in particular, allows an extremely precise determination of their residual entropy.We then study two models inspired by artificial spin systems on the kagome lattice with out-of-plane (OOP) anisotropy. The first model is motivated by experiments on an array of chirally coupled nanomagnets. We argue that the farther-neighbor to nearest-neighbor couplings ratios in this system are much smaller than in the dipolar case, J2/J1 being of the order of 2%. A comparison of the experimental correlations with the results of extensive TN and MC simulations shows that (1) the experimental second- and third-neighbor correlations are inverted as compared to those of a pure nearest-neighbor model at equilibrium (even with a magnetic field), and (2) second-neighbor couplings as small as 1% of the nearest-neighbor couplings will affect the spin-spin correlations even at fairly high temperatures.Motivated by dipolar coupled artificial spin systems, we turn to the progressive lifting of the ground-state degeneracy of the KIAFM. We provide a detailed study of the ground-state phases of this model with up to third neighbor interactions, for arbitrary J2, J3 such that J1 >> J2, J3, obtaining exact results for the ground-state energies. When all couplings are antiferromagnetic, we exhibit three macroscopically degenerate ground-state phases and establish their residual entropy using our TN approach. Furthermore, in the phase corresponding to the dipolar KIAFM truncated to third neighbors, we use the ground-state tiles to establish the existence of a mapping to the ground-state manifold of the triangular Ising antiferromagnet.

The discovery of high temperature superconductivity in the cuprates in 1986 has boosted the research in strongly correlated materials. One strong motivation was and stays the understanding the high-Tc phenomenon with the hope that one can ultimately engineer new materials with even higher Tc. Besides the in-depth investigation of cuprates, there is a strong tendency in the solid state community to find new superconductors, which by themselves are interesting for applications, or by their properties they can contribute to the understanding of the high-Tc phenomenon. The program of my doctoral thesis was three-fold: i) to address one important issue in the cuprate superconductors, that of the role of homogeneity in the underdoped part of the phase diagram; ii) what is the effect of disorder in MgB2 superconductor, which has high potentials for applications; iii) to discover new superconductors in the family of transition metal dichalcogenides. All these materials are in some sense unconventional superconductors. The cuprates by their high Tc and the symmetry of the order parameter, MgB2 by its two-band superconductivity and Tc of 39 K, and the dichalcogenides by the appearance of superconductivity on the background of competing interactions. Measurements of transport properties, such as resistivity and thermoelectric power, were used to get insight in the behavior of these materials. Besides temperature as variable, I applied high pressure, extreme magnetic fields and controlled disorder introduced by fast electron irradiation. In the first part I present the pressure dependent study of two members of the transition metal dichalcogenides having 1T structure, 1T-TiSe2 and 1T-TaS2, where superconductivity was never observed in a pristine sample. 1T-TiSe2 has a CDW phase below 220 K which origin, weather it is driven by an excitonic mechanism or by a Jahn-Teller distortion, is an ongoing question. By applying pressure I showed that the pristine sample is superconducting in the pressure range of 2.0–4.0 GPa. This range remarkably coincides with the short range fluctuating CDW before its disappearance at the upper pressure value. If CDW is due to excitonic interactions than our observations suggest that it can be at the origin of superconductivity, as well. The second dichalcogenide is the 1T-TaS2, where a Mott-insulator phase appears on the top of a commensurate CDW. By applying pressure I was able to melt that Mott-phase, and reveal that the material is superconducting above 2.5 GPa with Tc of 5.9 K. Unexpectedly, superconductivity is born from a nonmetallic phase, and stays remarkably stable up to the highest applied pressure of 24 GPa. In the second part I tried to give my contribution to the field of high-Tc superconductors. I carefully selected few high quality underdoped Bi2Sr2PrxCa1-xCu2O8-δ sample, to address the nature of the low temperature ground state by applying high magnetic field. Although former measurements by other groups showed that at high underdoping, the ground state is an insulator, I found that a sample with as low Tc as 15 K exhibits metallic behavior up to 60 T. Furthermore, I showed that a inhomogeneous distribution of the doping atoms can completely mask the intrinsic normal state of a high-Tc superconductor. In the last part of my thesis I focused on the two-band superconductor MgB2 by studying the scattering between the bands by the means of the Matthiessen's rule. I made a systematic study of the influence of defects created by fast electron irradiation, and found that the the Matthiessen's rule is satisfied for the defect concentration range I induced. I further compare the influence of defects on the critical temperature and the residual resistivity in MgB2 with superconductors with various order parameters, and found that the decrease-rate of Tc in our system is within the range of a response of a superconductor with an s-wave order parameter.

Pierluigi Bruzzone, Stephen Alfred March, Boris Stepanov, Davide Uglietti, Rainer Wesche

In the last few years, the critical current densities of long commercially available REBa2Cu3O7-x (RE-123, where RE represents Y or a rare earth element) coated conductors have reached values of 250 A/cm-width at 77K and zero applied field. Even higher values of 600 A/cm-w (77 K, B = 0) have been demonstrated in shorter lengths. The attractive features of the use of these high-T-c superconductors (HTS) are operation temperatures above 20K and/or magnetic fields higher than those envisaged for the ITER TF coils. Possible operation conditions for HTS fusion magnets have been studied taking into consideration the possible further improvements of RE-123 coated conductors. Investigations of stability and quench behavior indicate that stability is not a problem, whereas quench detection and protection need attention. Because of the high currents necessary for fusion magnets, many tapes need to be assembled into a transposed conductor. The qualification of HTS conductors for fusion magnets would require their test at magnetic fields of 11 land currents well above 10 kA. The possibilities to test straight HIS conductor samples in SULTAN have been considered. For a test at 4.5 K, only the development of a low resistance joint between the HTS conductor under test and the NbTi transformer of SULTAN would be necessary. Tests up to 20K would require that the HTS sample is connected with the NbTi transformer by a conduction-cooled HTS bus bar of large thermal resistance similar to the HIS module of a current lead. HIS conductor tests at temperatures around 50K would be possible with modified cryogenics. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.