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Publication# Thermalization and hydrodynamics of two-dimensional quantum field theories

Résumé

We consider 2d QFTs as relevant deformations of CFTs in the thermodynamic limit. Using causality and KPZ universality, we place a lower bound on the timescale characterizing the onset of hydrodynamics. The bound is determined parametrically in terms of the temperature and the scale associated with the relevant deformation. This bound is typically much stronger than 1/T, the expected quantum equilibration time. Subluminality of sound further allows us to define a thermodynamic C-function, and constrain the sign of the T(T) over bar term in EFTs.

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Concepts associés (8)

Thermodynamique

La thermodynamique est la branche de la physique qui traite de la dépendance des propriétés physiques des corps à la température, des phénomènes où interviennent des échanges thermiques, et des transf

Limite thermodynamique

En physique statistique, la limite thermodynamique est la limite mathématique conjointe où :

- le nombre de particules N du système considéré tend vers l'infini ;
- le volume V

Two-dimensional conformal field theory

A two-dimensional conformal field theory is a quantum field theory on a Euclidean two-dimensional space, that is invariant under local conformal transformations.
In contrast to other types of confor

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Conformal field theories have been long known to describe the fascinating universal physics of scale invariant critical points. They describe continuous phase transitions in fluids, magnets, and numerous other materials, while at the same time sit at the heart of our modern understanding of quantum field theory. For decades it has been a dream to study these intricate strongly coupled theories nonperturbatively using symmetries and other consistency conditions. This idea, called the conformal bootstrap, saw some successes in two dimensions but it is only in the last ten years that it has been fully realized in three, four, and other dimensions of interest. This renaissance has been possible due to both significant analytical progress in understanding how to set up the bootstrap equations and the development of numerical techniques for finding or constraining their solutions. These developments have led to a number of groundbreaking results, including world-record determinations of critical exponents and correlation function coefficients in the Ising and O(N) models in three dimensions. This article will review these exciting developments for newcomers to the bootstrap, giving an introduction to conformal field theories and the theory of conformal blocks, describing numerical techniques for the bootstrap based on convex optimization, and summarizing in detail their applications to fixed points in three and four dimensions with no or minimal supersymmetry.

This thesis presents studies in strongly coupled Renormalization Group (RG) flows. In the first part, we analyze the subject of non-local Conformal Field Theories (CFTs), arising as continuous phase transitions of statistical models with long-range interactions. Specifically, we study the critical long-range Ising model in a general number of dimension: first we show that it is conformally invariant, and then we study in depth the different regimes of the theory. We find an example of an infrared duality, to our knowledge the first non-local example of such phenomenon.
The second part of the thesis deals with walking theories and weakly first order phase transi- tions, meaning Quantum Field Theories that show approximate scale invariance over a range of energies, in a general number of dimensions. We discuss several example in the high energy as well as the statistical mechanics literature, and show that these theories can be understood as an RG flow passing between two complex CFTs, i.e. non-unitary theories living at complex values of the couplings. Combining the conformal data of these complex CFTs and conformal perturbation theory, we describe observables of the walking theory. Finally, we give the explicit example of the two dimensional Potts model with more than four states.

General principles of quantum field theory imply that there exists an operator product expansion (OPE) for Wightman functions in Minkowski momentum space that converges for arbitrary kinematics. This convergence is guaranteed to hold in the sense of a distribution, meaning that it holds for correlation functions smeared by smooth test functions. The conformal blocks for this OPE are conceptually extremely simple: they are products of 3-point functions. We construct the conformal blocks in 2-dimensional conformal field theory and show that the OPE in fact converges pointwise to an ordinary function in a specific kinematic region. Using microcausality, we also formulate a bootstrap equation directly in terms of momentum space Wightman functions.