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Publication# Cosmology intertwined: A review of the particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology associated with the cosmological tensions and anomalies

Richard Irving Anderson, Hsin-Yu Chen, Frédéric Courbin, Fabio Finelli, Mikhail Ivanov, Melissa Joseph, Suresh Kumar, Julien Lesgourgues, Florian Niedermann, Emre Ozulker

*ELSEVIER, *2022

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Résumé

The standard Lambda Cold Dark Matter (Lambda CDM) cosmological model provides a good description of a wide range of astrophysical and cosmological data. However, there are a few big open questions that make the standard model look like an approximation to a more realistic scenario yet to be found. In this paper, we list a few important goals that need to be addressed in the next decade, taking into account the current discordances between the different cosmological probes, such as the disagreement in the value of the Hubble constant H-0, the sigma(8)-S-8 tension, and other less statistically significant anomalies. While these discordances can still be in part the result of systematic errors, their persistence after several years of accurate analysis strongly hints at cracks in the standard cosmological scenario and the necessity for new physics or generalisations beyond the standard model. In this paper, we focus on the 5.0 sigma tension between the Planck CMB estimate of the Hubble constant H-0 and the SH0ES collaboration measurements. After showing the H-0 evaluations made from different teams using different methods and geometric calibrations, we list a few interesting new physics models that could alleviate this tension and discuss how the next decade's experiments will be crucial. Moreover, we focus on the tension of the Planck CMB data with weak lensing measurements and redshift surveys, about the value of the matter energy density Omega(m), and the amplitude or rate of the growth of structure (sigma(8), f sigma(8)). We list a few interesting models proposed for alleviating this tension, and we discuss the importance of trying to fit a full array of data with a single model and not just one parameter at a time. Additionally, we present a wide range of other less discussed anomalies at a statistical significance level lower than the H-0-S-8 tensions which may also constitute hints towards new physics, and we discuss possible generic theoretical approaches that can collectively explain the non-standard nature of these signals. Finally, we give an overview of upgraded experiments and next-generation space missions and facilities on Earth that will be of crucial importance to address all these open questions. (C) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.

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Since the public release of Planck data, several attempts have been made to explain the observed small tensions with other data sets, most of them involving an extension of the Lambda cold dark matter (Lambda CDM) model. We try here an alternative approach to the data analysis, based on separating the constraints coming from the different epochs in cosmology, in order to assess which part of the standard model generates the tension with the data. To this end, we perform a particular analysis of Planck data probing only the early cosmological evolution, until the time of photon decoupling. Then, we utilize this result to see if the Lambda CDM model can fit all observational constraints probing only the late cosmological background evolution, discarding any information concerning the late perturbation evolution. We find that all tensions between the data sets are removed, suggesting that our standard assumptions on the perturbed late-time history, as well as on reionization, could sufficiently bias our parameter extraction and be the source of the alleged tensions.

Our knowledge of our universe is deeply related to our understanding of physics at the sub- atomic scale. Indeed, at its early stage, our universe was so hot and so dense that the only relevant interactions were those between fundamental particles. Therefore, to improve our comprehension of the phenomena that take place over very large scales, we should improve our understanding of the physics at extremely small ones. The so-called Standard Model of particle physics (SM) provides us with a description of these fundamental particles and their interactions. Despite its enormous success, this model fails to explain several experimental evidences. In this thesis, we focus on the following three questions that are not answered by the SM. What is the so-called dark matter that is present in every galaxy? Why is our present universe made of matter with almost no trace of anti-matter? Finally, why can a neutrino of one family transform into a neutrino of another family? In this thesis, we show that the simple addition of three new neutrinos to the Standard Model allows us to answer the three questions above. The model that realizes this scenario is known as Neutrino Minimal Standard Model (νMSM). In this work, we give a comprehensive summary of all known constraints in the νMSM. We present the first complete quantitative study of the parameter space of the model where no physics beyond the νMSM is needed to simultaneously explain the three phenomena cited above. Moreover, these new particles can be looked for using current day experimental techniques and our results provide a guideline for future experimental searches.

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This paper presents the first cosmological results based on Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and lensing-potential power spectra. We find that the Planck spectra at high multipoles (l greater than or similar to 40) are extremely well described by the standard spatially-flat six-parameter ACDM cosmology with a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations. Within the context of this cosmology, the Planck data determine the cosmological parameters to high precision: the angular size of the sound horizon at recombination, the physical densities of baryons and cold dark matter, and the scalar spectral index are estimated to be theta* = (1.04147 +/- 0.00062) x 10(-2), Omega(b)h(2) = 0.02205 +/- 0.00028, Omega(c)h(2) = 0.1199 +/- 0.0027, and n(s) = 0.9603 +/- 0.0073, respectively (note that in this abstract we quote 68% errors on measured parameters and 95% upper limits on other parameters). For this cosmology, we find a low value of the Hubble constant, H-0 = (67.3 +/- 1.2) km s(-1) Mpc(-1), and a high value of the matter density parameter, Omega(m) = 0.315 +/- 0.017. These values are in tension with recent direct measurements of H-0 and the magnitude-redshift relation for Type Ia supernovae, but are in excellent agreement with geometrical constraints from baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) surveys. Including curvature, we find that the Universe is consistent with spatial flatness to percent level precision using Planck CMB data alone. We use high-resolution CMB data together with Planck to provide greater control on extragalactic foreground components in an investigation of extensions to the six-parameter ACDM model. We present selected results from a large grid of cosmological models, using a range of additional astrophysical data sets in addition to Planck and high-resolution CMB data. None of these models are favoured over the standard six-parameter ACDM cosmology. The deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity is insensitive to the addition of tensor modes and to changes in the matter content of the Universe. We find an upper limit of r(0.002) < 0.11 on the tensor-to-scalar ratio. There is no evidence for additional neutrino-like relativistic particles beyond the three families of neutrinos in the standard model. Using BAO and CMB data, we find N-eff = 3.30 +/- 0.27 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom, and an upper limit of 0.23 eV for the sum of neutrino masses. Our results are in excellent agreement with big bang nucleosynthesis and the standard value of N-eff = 3.046. We find no evidence for dynamical dark energy; using BAO and CMB data, the dark energy equation of state parameter is constrained to be w = -1.13(-0.10)(+0.13). We also use the Planck data to set limits on a possible variation of the fine-structure constant, dark matter annihilation and primordial magnetic fields. Despite the success of the six-parameter ACDM model in describing the Planck data at high multipoles, we note that this cosmology does not provide a good fit to the temperature power spectrum at low multipoles. The unusual shape of the spectrum in the multipole range 20 less than or similar to l less than or similar to 40 was seen previously in the WMAP data and is a real feature of the primordial CMB anisotropies. The poor fit to the spectrum at low multipoles is not of decisive significance, but is an "anomaly" in an otherwise self-consistent analysis of the Planck temperature data.