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Category# Topics in number theory

Summary

Number theory (or arithmetic or higher arithmetic in older usage) is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers and arithmetic functions. German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855) said, "Mathematics is the queen of the sciences—and number theory is the queen of mathematics." Number theorists study prime numbers as well as the properties of mathematical objects constructed from integers (for example, rational numbers), or defined as generalizations of the integers (for example, algebraic integers).
Integers can be considered either in themselves or as solutions to equations (Diophantine geometry). Questions in number theory are often best understood through the study of analytical objects (for example, the Riemann zeta function) that encode properties of the integers, primes or other number-theoretic objects in some fashion (analytic number theory). One may also study real numbers in relation to rational numbers, for example, as approximated by the latter (Diophantine approximation).
The older term for number theory is arithmetic. By the early twentieth century, it had been superseded by "number theory". (The word "arithmetic" is used by the general public to mean "elementary calculations"; it has also acquired other meanings in mathematical logic, as in Peano arithmetic, and computer science, as in floating-point arithmetic.) The use of the term arithmetic for number theory regained some ground in the second half of the 20th century, arguably in part due to French influence. In particular, arithmetical is commonly preferred as an adjective to number-theoretic.
The earliest historical find of an arithmetical nature is a fragment of a table: the broken clay tablet Plimpton 322 (Larsa, Mesopotamia, ca. 1800 BC) contains a list of "Pythagorean triples", that is, integers such that .
The triples are too many and too large to have been obtained by brute force. The heading over the first column reads: "The takiltum of the diagonal which has been subtracted such that the width.

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Smooth number

In number theory, an n-smooth (or n-friable) number is an integer whose prime factors are all less than or equal to n. For example, a 7-smooth number is a number whose every prime factor is at most 7, so 49 = 72 and 15750 = 2 × 32 × 53 × 7 are both 7-smooth, while 11 and 702 = 2 × 33 × 13 are not 7-smooth. The term seems to have been coined by Leonard Adleman. Smooth numbers are especially important in cryptography, which relies on factorization of integers.

Completely multiplicative function

In number theory, functions of positive integers which respect products are important and are called completely multiplicative functions or totally multiplicative functions. A weaker condition is also important, respecting only products of coprime numbers, and such functions are called multiplicative functions. Outside of number theory, the term "multiplicative function" is often taken to be synonymous with "completely multiplicative function" as defined in this article.

Fibonacci sequence

In mathematics, the Fibonacci sequence is a sequence in which each number is the sum of the two preceding ones. Numbers that are part of the Fibonacci sequence are known as Fibonacci numbers, commonly denoted Fn . The sequence commonly starts from 0 and 1, although some authors start the sequence from 1 and 1 or sometimes (as did Fibonacci) from 1 and 2. Starting from 0 and 1, the first few values in the sequence are: 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144.

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Complex analysis

Complex analysis, traditionally known as the theory of functions of a complex variable, is the branch of mathematical analysis that investigates functions of complex numbers. It is helpful in many branches of mathematics, including algebraic geometry, number theory, analytic combinatorics, applied mathematics; as well as in physics, including the branches of hydrodynamics, thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, and twistor theory. By extension, use of complex analysis also has applications in engineering fields such as nuclear, aerospace, mechanical and electrical engineering.

Analytic number theory

In mathematics, analytic number theory is a branch of number theory that uses methods from mathematical analysis to solve problems about the integers. It is often said to have begun with Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet's 1837 introduction of Dirichlet L-functions to give the first proof of Dirichlet's theorem on arithmetic progressions. It is well known for its results on prime numbers (involving the Prime Number Theorem and Riemann zeta function) and additive number theory (such as the Goldbach conjecture and Waring's problem).

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In this thesis, we study interactions between algebraic and coalgebraic structures in infinity-categories (more precisely, in the quasicategorical model of (infinity, 1)-categories). We define a notion of a Hopf algebra H in an E-2-monoidal infinity-category and lift some results about ordinary Hopf algebras, such as the fundamental theorem of Hopf modules, to this setting. We also study Hopf-Galois extensions in this context. Given a candidate Hopf-Galois extension, i.e., a map f : A -> B of H-comodule algebras where H coacts on A trivially, we construct a structured version of the comparison map B (x)_A B -> H (x) B that allows us to compare the category of descent data for f with a category of "B-modules equipped with a semilinear coaction of H". We provide further insights into the case of commutative (i.e., E-infinity) comodule algebras over a commutative Hopf algebra, for instance a description of the aforementioned category of modules equipped with a semilinear coaction as the limit of a "categorified cobar construction". Moreover, we provide a simple description of comodules over a space in slice categories of the infinity-category of spaces, which enables us to realize multiplicative Thom objects as comodule algebras and thus incorporate them into the aforementioned framework.

Malik Amir, Andreas Hatziiliou

Let f(z)=q+∑n≥2a(n)qn be a weight k normalized newform with integer coefficients and trivial residual mod 2 Galois representation. We extend the results of Amir and Hong in Amir and Hong (On L-functions of modular elliptic curves and certain K3 surfaces, Ramanujan J, 2021) for k=2 by ruling out or locating all odd prime values |ℓ|

2021