**Are you an EPFL student looking for a semester project?**

Work with us on data science and visualisation projects, and deploy your project as an app on top of GraphSearch.

Concept# Perturbation theory

Summary

In mathematics and applied mathematics, perturbation theory comprises methods for finding an approximate solution to a problem, by starting from the exact solution of a related, simpler problem. A critical feature of the technique is a middle step that breaks the problem into "solvable" and "perturbative" parts. In perturbation theory, the solution is expressed as a power series in a small parameter \varepsilon. The first term is the known solution to the solvable problem. Successive terms in the series at higher powers of \varepsilon usually become smaller. An approximate 'perturbation solution' is obtained by truncating the series, usually by keeping only the first two terms, the solution to the known problem and the 'first order' perturbation correction.
Perturbation theory is used in a wide range of fields, and reaches its most sophisticated and advanced forms in quantum field theory. Pert

Official source

This page is automatically generated and may contain information that is not correct, complete, up-to-date, or relevant to your search query. The same applies to every other page on this website. Please make sure to verify the information with EPFL's official sources.

Related publications

Loading

Related people

Loading

Related units

Loading

Related concepts

Loading

Related courses

Loading

Related lectures

Loading

Related people (45)

Related concepts (55)

General relativity

General relativity, also known as the general theory of relativity and Einstein's theory of gravity, is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and is the current des

Force

In physics, a force is an influence that can cause an object to change its velocity, i.e., to accelerate, unless counterbalanced by other forces. The concept of force makes the everyday notion of pus

Paul Dirac

Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (dɪˈræk; 8 August 1902 – 20 October 1984) was an English theoretical physicist who is considered to be one of the founders of quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics.

Related publications (100)

Loading

Loading

Loading

Related units (29)

Related courses (60)

PHYS-314: Quantum physics II

L'objectif de ce cours est de familiariser l'étudiant avec les concepts, les méthodes et les conséquences de la physique quantique. En particulier, le moment cinétique, la théorie de perturbation, les systèmes à plusieurs particules, les symétries, et les corrélations quantique seront traité

PHYS-426: Quantum physics IV

Introduction to the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics. Derivation of the perturbation expansion of Green's functions in terms of Feynman diagrams. Several applications will be presented, including non-perturbative effects, such as tunneling and instantons.

CH-353: Introduction to electronic structure methods

Repetition of the basic concepts of quantum mechanics and main numerical algorithms used for practical implementions. Basic principles of electronic structure methods:Hartree-Fock, many body perturbation theory, configuration interaction, coupled-cluster theory, density functional theory.

Pablo Jonas Baudin, Jógvan Magnus Olsen

The cluster perturbation series, CPS(D), for coupled cluster singles and doubles excitation energies is considered. It is demonstrated that the second-order model CPS(D-2) is identical to the configuration interaction singles with perturbative doubles, CIS(D) model. The third-order model, CPS(D-3), provides excitation energies of coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) quality in the sense that the difference between CPS(D-3) and CCSD excitation energies is of the same size or smaller than the effect of adding triples corrections to CCSD excitation energies. We further show that the third-order corrections can be efficiently implemented, in particular, when the resolution of the identity approximation is used for integrals. We also show that the CPS(D-3) excitation energies can be determined for system sizes that are far beyond what can be considered in conventional CCSD excitation energy calculations. Published under license by AIP Publishing.

Most European countries are committed to an energy transition which consists in the substitution of conventional CO2 emitting energy sources by new renewable energy sources (RES), in particular wind and solar power. As opposed to conventional energy sources, new RES are distributed, non-dispatchable, fluctuating and inertialess and have negligible marginal costs. In this thesis, we investigate the impact of the energy transition on the electricity sector in Europe.
In the first part of this thesis, we investigate the future electricity production and prices in Europe. We develop a dispatch algorithm on an aggregated model of the pan-European power grid with which we study the future European productions. We show that, as the penetration of new RES increases, the transmission grids are more strongly used and that more flexibility is required from conventional generators. The existing infrastructures seem to able to absorb, through increased international power exchanges and usage of the existing pumped-storage hydroelectricity, the variations of new RES productions even for high penetrations. Then we investigate the effects of new RES on electricity prices. We explain why, due to their negligible marginal cost and their lack of dispatchability, they tend to drag electricity prices down and can be considered as a reduction of the load in the electricity pricing. In particular, photovoltaics decreases the volatility of electricity prices. We show that, in most European countries, the day-ahead electricity price is strongly correlated with the residual load, which is obtained by subtracting the non-dispatchable productions, in particular those of the new RES, from the load. From this observation, we build an effective price model based solely on the residual load with which the revenues of different electricity producers are evaluated.
The second part of this thesis deals with disturbances in large transmission grids. The substitution of conventional generators by inertialess RES reduces the amount of inertia connected to power systems which might affect their reliability. To examine the propagation of disturbances in large transmission grids, we develop a dynamical model of the continental European transmission grid. We observe that the magnitude of the disturbance following a power loss depends on the fault location. We show that when inertia and primary control are uniformly distributed, the faults exciting the slowest eigenmodes of the network Laplacian are followed by the strongest disturbances. Reducing inertia on those eigenmodes, which are mostly located in the periphery of the grid, affects more its resilience than when the reduction occurs in its center. Finally, we use perturbation theory to derive algorithms for optimal placement of inertia and primary control when some mild inhomogeneities are present in their distributions. We show that,when the vulnerability of the whole grid is taken into account, a uniform distribution of inertia is optimal and the primary control is best placed in the periphery of the grid.

We obtain phonon lifetimes in aluminium by inelastic neutron scattering experiments, by ab initio molecular dynamics, and by perturbation theory. At elevated temperatures significant discrepancies are found between experiment and perturbation theory, which disappear when using molecular dynamics due to the inclusion of full anharmonicity and the correct treatment of the multiphonon background. We show that multiple-site interactions are small and that local pairwise anharmonicity dominates phonon-phonon interactions, which permits an efficient computation of phonon lifetimes.

2019Related lectures (138)