In linguistics, a grapheme is the smallest functional unit of a writing system.
The word grapheme is derived and the suffix -eme by analogy with phoneme and other names of emic units. The study of graphemes is called graphemics. The concept of graphemes is abstract and similar to the notion in computing of a character. By comparison, a specific shape that represents any particular grapheme in a given typeface is called a glyph.Conceptualization
There are two main opposing grapheme concepts.In the so-called referential conception, graphemes are interpreted as the smallest units of writing that correspond with sounds (more accurately phonemes). In this concept, the sh in the written English word shake would be a grapheme because it represents the phoneme /ʃ/. This referential concept is linked to the dependency hypothesis that claims that writing merely depicts speech.By contrast, the analogical concept defines graphemes analogously to phonemes, i.e. via written mini
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