Summary
A particle beam is a stream of charged or neutral particles. In particle accelerators, these particles can move with a velocity close to the speed of light. There is a difference between the creation and control of charged particle beams and neutral particle beams, as only the first type can be manipulated to a sufficient extent by devices based on electromagnetism. The manipulation and diagnostics of charged particle beams at high kinetic energies using particle accelerators are main topics of accelerator physics. Charged particles such as electrons, positrons, and protons may be separated from their common surrounding. This can be accomplished by e.g. thermionic emission or arc discharge. The following devices are commonly used as sources for particle beams: Ion source Cathode ray tube, or more specifically in one of its parts called electron gun. This is also part of traditional television and computer screens. Photocathodes may also be built in as a part of an electron gun, using the photoelectric effect to separate particles from their substrate. Neutron beams may be created by energetic proton beams which impact on a target, e.g. of beryllium material. (see article Particle therapy) Bursting a Petawatt Laser onto a titanium foil to produce a proton beam. Accelerator physics and Superconducting radio frequency Charged beams may be further accelerated by use of high resonant, sometimes also superconducting, microwave cavities. These devices accelerate particles by interaction with an electromagnetic field. Since the wavelength of hollow macroscopic, conducting devices is in the radio frequency (RF) band, the design of such cavities and other RF devices is also a part of accelerator physics. More recently, plasma acceleration has emerged as a possibility to accelerate particles in a plasma medium, using the electromagnetic energy of pulsed high-power laser systems or the kinetic energy of other charged particles. This technique is under active development, but cannot provide reliable beams of sufficient quality at present.
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Related publications (5)

Accurate Profile Measurement of the low Intensity Secondary Beams in the CERN Experimental Areas

Inaki Ortega Ruiz

The CERN accelerators deliver a wide spectrum of secondary beams to the Experimental Areas. These beams are composed of hadrons, leptons, and heavy ions that can vary greatly in momentum (1 GeV/c to 4
EPFL2018

Beam Transfer Function measurements and transverse beam stability studies for the Large Hadron Collider and its High Luminosity upgrade

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The motion of high energetic particle beams in accelerators is influenced by their interactions with the accelerator environment through electromagnetic fields induced by the particle passages. Travel
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A new extraction technique has been studied at the CERN Proton Synchrotron with a view of using it for the fixed-target physics programme at the Super Proton Synchrotron. The extraction scheme is base
Epl Association, European Physical Society2016
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Related concepts (27)
Particle beam
A particle beam is a stream of charged or neutral particles. In particle accelerators, these particles can move with a velocity close to the speed of light. There is a difference between the creation and control of charged particle beams and neutral particle beams, as only the first type can be manipulated to a sufficient extent by devices based on electromagnetism. The manipulation and diagnostics of charged particle beams at high kinetic energies using particle accelerators are main topics of accelerator physics.
Particle accelerator
A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to very high speeds and energies, and to contain them in well-defined beams. Large accelerators are used for fundamental research in particle physics. The largest accelerator currently active is the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva, Switzerland, operated by the CERN. It is a collider accelerator, which can accelerate two beams of protons to an energy of 6.5 TeV and cause them to collide head-on, creating center-of-mass energies of 13 TeV.
Beamline
In accelerator physics, a beamline refers to the trajectory of the beam of particles, including the overall construction of the path segment (guide tubes, diagnostic devices) along a specific path of an accelerator facility. This part is either the line in a linear accelerator along which a beam of particles travels, or the path leading from particle generator (e.g. a cyclic accelerator, synchrotron light sources, cyclotrons, or spallation sources) to the experimental end-station.
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