**Are you an EPFL student looking for a semester project?**

Work with us on data science and visualisation projects, and deploy your project as an app on top of GraphSearch.

Concept# History of mathematics

Summary

The history of mathematics deals with the origin of discoveries in mathematics and the mathematical methods and notation of the past. Before the modern age and the worldwide spread of knowledge, written examples of new mathematical developments have come to light only in a few locales. From 3000 BC the Mesopotamian states of Sumer, Akkad and Assyria, followed closely by Ancient Egypt and the Levantine state of Ebla began using arithmetic, algebra and geometry for purposes of taxation, commerce, trade and also in the patterns in nature, the field of astronomy and to record time and formulate calendars.
The earliest mathematical texts available are from Mesopotamia and Egypt – Plimpton 322 (Babylonian c. 2000 – 1900 BC), the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus (Egyptian c. 1800 BC) and the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus (Egyptian c. 1890 BC). All of these texts mention the so-called Pythagorean triples, so, by inference, the Pythagorean theorem seems to be the most ancient and widespread mathemat

Official source

This page is automatically generated and may contain information that is not correct, complete, up-to-date, or relevant to your search query. The same applies to every other page on this website. Please make sure to verify the information with EPFL's official sources.

Related publications

Loading

Related people

Loading

Related units

Loading

Related concepts

Loading

Related courses

Loading

Related lectures

Loading

Related people

Related publications (6)

Related units

No results

No results

Loading

Loading

Loading

Related courses (7)

MATH-470: Martingales in financial mathematics

The aim of the course is to apply the theory of martingales in the context of mathematical finance. The course provides a detailed study of the mathematical ideas that are used in modern financial mathematics. Moreover, the concepts of complete and incomplete markets are discussed.

EE-715: Optimal control

This doctoral course provides an introduction to optimal control covering fundamental theory, numerical implementation and problem formulation for applications.

CS-305: Software engineering

This course teaches the basics of modern software development: designing software, working in a team, writing good code, shipping software, and evolving software. It emphasizes building software that meets high standards of quality, reliability, security, and manageability.

Related concepts (58)

History of science

The history of science covers the development of science from ancient times to the present. It encompasses all three major branches of science: natural, social, and formal.
Science's earliest roots

Foundations of mathematics

Foundations of mathematics is the study of the philosophical and logical and/or algorithmic basis of mathematics, or, in a broader sense, the mathematical investigation of what underlies the philosoph

Philosophy of mathematics

The philosophy of mathematics is the branch of philosophy that studies the assumptions, foundations, and implications of mathematics. It aims to understand the nature and methods of mathematics, a

Alfio Quarteroni, Anna Tagliabue

In this paper, we study the blood flow dynamics in a three-dimensional (3D) idealized left ventricle of the human heart whose deformation is driven by muscle contraction and relaxation in coordination with the action of the mitral and aortic valves. We propose a simplified but realistic mathematical treatment of the valves function based on mixed time-varying boundary conditions (BCs) for the Navier-Stokes equations modeling the flow. These switchings in time BCs, from natural to essential and vice versa, model either the open or the closed configurations of the valves. At the numerical level, these BCs are enforced by means of the extended Nitsche's method (Tagliabue et al., Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, 2017). Numerical results for the 3D idealized left ventricle obtained by means of Isogeometric Analysis are presented, discussed in terms of both instantaneous and phase-averaged quantities of interest and validated against those available in the literature, both experimental and computational. The complex blood flow patterns are analysed to describe the characteristic fluid properties, to show the transitional nature of the flow, and to highlight its main features inside the left ventricle. The sensitivity of the intraventricular flow patterns to the mitral valve properties is also investigated. Published by AIP Publishing.

Johanni Michael Brea, Wulfram Gerstner, Alireza Modirshanechi

Surprising events trigger measurable brain activity and influence human behavior by affecting learning, memory, and decision-making. Currently there is, however, no consensus on the definition of surprise. Here we identify 18 mathematical definitions of surprise in a unifying framework. We first propose a technical classification of these definitions into three groups based on their dependence on an agent’s belief, show how they relate to each other, and prove under what conditions they are indistinguishable. Going beyond this technical analysis, we propose a taxonomy of surprise definitions and classify them into four conceptual categories based on the quantity they measure: (i) ‘prediction surprise’ measures a mismatch between a prediction and an observation; (ii) ‘change-point detection surprise’ measures the probability of a change in the environment; (iii) ‘confidence-corrected surprise’ explicitly accounts for the effect of confidence; and (iv) ‘information gain surprise’ measures the belief-update upon a new observation. The taxonomy poses the foundation for principled studies of the functional roles and physiological signatures of surprise in the brain.

2022Related lectures (1)