is the national anthem of Japan. The lyrics are from a poem written by an unnamed author in the Heian period (794–1185), and the current melody was chosen in 1880, replacing an unpopular melody composed by John William Fenton eleven years earlier. While the title "Kimigayo" is usually translated as "His Imperial Majesty's Reign", no official translation of the title or lyrics has been established in law.
From 1888 to 1945, "Kimigayo" served as the national anthem of the Empire of Japan. When the Empire was dissolved following its surrender at the end of World War II, the State of Japan succeeded it in 1945. This successor state was a parliamentary democracy, constitutional monarchy and the polity therefore changed from a system based on imperial sovereignty to one based on popular sovereignty. However, the Allied occupation forces (mainly U.S. military) allowed Hirohito, Emperor Shōwa to retain the throne and "Kimigayo" remained the de facto national anthem for preservation of