Concept

# Denavit–Hartenberg parameters

Summary
In mechanical engineering, the Denavit–Hartenberg parameters (also called DH parameters) are the four parameters associated with a particular convention for attaching reference frames to the links of a spatial kinematic chain, or robot manipulator. Jacques Denavit and Richard Hartenberg introduced this convention in 1955 in order to standardize the coordinate frames for spatial linkages. Richard Paul demonstrated its value for the kinematic analysis of robotic systems in 1981. While many conventions for attaching reference frames have been developed, the Denavit–Hartenberg convention remains a popular approach. A commonly used convention for selecting frames of reference in robotics applications is the Denavit and Hartenberg (D–H) convention which was introduced by Jacques Denavit and Richard S. Hartenberg. In this convention, coordinate frames are attached to the joints between two links such that one transformation is associated with the joint, [Z ], and the second is associated with the link [X ]. The coordinate transformations along a serial robot consisting of n links form the kinematics equations of the robot, where [T ] is the transformation locating the end-link. In order to determine the coordinate transformations [Z ] and [X ], the joints connecting the links are modeled as either hinged or sliding joints, each of which have a unique line S in space that forms the joint axis and define the relative movement of the two links. A typical serial robot is characterized by a sequence of six lines S_i, i = 1, 2, ..., 6, one for each joint in the robot. For each sequence of lines S_i and S_i+1, there is a common normal line A_i,i+1. The system of six joint axes S_i and five common normal lines A_i,i+1 form the kinematic skeleton of the typical six degree of freedom serial robot. Denavit and Hartenberg introduced the convention that z-coordinate axes are assigned to the joint axes S_i and x-coordinate axes are assigned to the common normals A_i,i+1.