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Concept# Dissipation

Summary

In thermodynamics, dissipation is the result of an irreversible process that affects a thermodynamic system. In a dissipative process, energy (internal, bulk flow kinetic, or system potential) transforms from an initial form to a final form, where the capacity of the final form to do thermodynamic work is less than that of the initial form. For example, transfer of energy as heat is dissipative because it is a transfer of energy other than by thermodynamic work or by transfer of matter, and spreads previously concentrated energy. Following the second law of thermodynamics, in conduction and radiation from one body to another, the entropy varies with temperature (reduces the capacity of the combination of the two bodies to do work), but never decreases in an isolated system.
Processes with defined local temperature produce entropy at a certain rate. The entropy production rate times local temperature gives the dissipated power. Important examples of irreversible processes are: heat fl

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Large-eddy simulation (LES) is a very promising technique for the numerical computation of unsteady turbulent flows, and seems to be the perfect tool to simulate the compressible air flow around a high-speed train in a tunnel, providing unsteady results for aerodynamic and aeroacoustic analysis. To look into this possible future application of LES, two major lines of investigation are pursued in this thesis: first, the study of the effective ability of shock-capturing schemes to predict fundamental turbulent phenomena; second, the analysis of the aerodynamic phenomena induced by a high-speed train in a tunnel. The numerical simulation of compressible flows requires the use of shock-capturing schemes. These schemes can be relatively dissipative and mask the subgrid-scale contribution introduced in a large-eddy simulation to account for the unresolved turbulence scales. To estimate their effective dissipation and their ability to resolve turbulence phenomena, shock-capturing schemes widely used for aeronautical applications, from second- to fifth-order space accuracy, are employed here for simulating well-known fundamental flows in subsonic and supersonic regimes. Direct and large-eddy numerical simulations are undertaken for the inviscid and viscous Taylor-Green vortex decay problem, the freely decaying homogeneous and isotropic turbulence, and the fully developed channel flow. For all the turbulent flows investigated, several turbulence statistics are computed and the numerical dissipation of the schemes tested is interpreted in terms of subgrid-scale dissipation in a LES context, yielding an equivalent Smagorinsky or dynamic coefficient. This coefficient is for all schemes of the same order of magnitude as the commonly accepted values in LES for the subgrid-scale term. On the grounds of this analysis and of the comparisons of the turbulence statistics with accurate data obtained in the literature, the addition of explicit subgrid-scale models to the shock-capturing schemes tested is not recommended. It is thus concluded that the use of the LES technique for compressible turbulent flows is not yet suitable for industrial applications. The aerodynamic phenomena generated by a high-speed train travelling in a tunnel are also discussed, their importance on the design of high-speed lies is pointed out, and the analysis tools commonly employed for their study are reviewed. To study numerically the three-dimensional, compressible and turbulent air flow around a high-speed train accelerating in a tunnel, by accounting for the unsteady effects at inlet and outlet boundaries due to the propagation of pressure waves generated at the train departure, new coupling conditions between one-dimensional and three-dimensional domains are developed. These conditions are applied successfully to the numerical simulation of the unsteady wake developing behind two- and three-dimensional vehicles, where the averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved with the turbulence modelling approach. The influence on the wake of the length of the vehicle tail is also discussed and results of multi-dimensional simulations are compared with one-dimensional data.

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A gravity-driven droplet will rapidly flow down an inclined substrate, resisted only by stresses inside the liquid. If the substrate is compliant, with an elastic modulus G < 100 kPa, the droplet will markedly slow as a consequence of viscoelastic braking. This phenomenon arises due to deformations of the solid at the moving contact line, enhancing dissipation in the solid phase. Here, we pattern compliant surfaces with textures and probe their interaction with droplets. We show that the superhydrophobic Cassie state, where a droplet is supported atop air-immersed textures, is preserved on soft textured substrates. Confocal microscopy reveals that every texture in contact with the liquid is deformed by capillary stresses. This deformation is coupled to liquid pinning induced by the orientation of contact lines atop soft textures. Thus, compared to flat substrates, greater forcing is required for the onset of drop motion when the soft solid is textured. Surprisingly, droplet velocities down inclined soft or hard textured substrates are indistinguishable; the textures thus suppress viscoelastic braking despite substantial fluid-solid contact. High-speed microscopy shows that contact line velocities atop the pillars vastly exceed those associated with viscoelastic braking. This velocity regime involves less deformation, thus less dissipation, in the solid phase. Such rapid motions are only possible because the textures introduce a new scale and contact-line geometry. The contact-line orientation atop soft pillars induces significant deflections of the pillars on the receding edge of the droplet; calculations confirm that this does not slow down the droplet.

2020The exploration of open quantum many-body systems -systems of microscopic size exhibiting quantum coherence and interacting with their surrounding- has emerged as a key research area over the last years. The recent advances in controlling and preserving quantum coherence at the level of a single particle, developed in a wide variety of physical platforms, have been a major driving force in this field. The driven dissipative nature is a common characteristic of a wide class of modern experimental platforms in quantum science and technology, such as photonic systems, ultracold atoms, optomechanical systems, or superconducting circuits. The interplay between the coherent quantum dynamics and dissipation in open quantum systems leads to a wide range of novel out-of-equilibrium behaviours. Among them, the emergence in these systems of dynamical phases with novel broken symmetries, topological phases and the occurrence of dissipative phase transitions are of particular interest. This thesis aims at establishing a theoretical framework to engineer, characterize and control nonclassical states of light in photonic quantum optical networks in different regimes. The emphasis is put on its implementation, in particular with respect to integration and scalability in photonic platforms. In this thesis, we tackle some interesting aspects arising in the study of the dynamics of driven dissipative coupled nonlinear optical resonators. In that context, we consider the dynamics of two coupled nonlinear photonic cavities in the presence of inhomogeneous coherent driving and local dissipations using the Lindblad master equation formalism.We show that this simple open quantum many-body system can be subject to dynamical instabilities. In particular, our analysis shows that this system presents highly nonclassical properties and its dynamics exhibits dissipative Kerr solitons (DKSs), characterized by the robustness of its specific temporal or spatial waveform during propagation.In a second step, our intuition gained from this system composed of only few degrees of freedom is expanded to the study of systems of bigger size. In particular, we study DKSs originating from the parametric gain in Kerr microresonators. While DKSs are usually described using a classical mean-field approach, our work proposes a quantum-mechanical model formulated in terms of the truncated Wigner formalism. This analysis is motivated by the fact that technological implementations push towards the realization of DKSs in miniaturized integrated systems. These are operating at low power, a regime where quantum effects are expected to be relevant. Using the tools provided by the theory of open quantum systems, we propose a detailed investigation of the impact of quantum fluctuations on the spectral and dynamical properties of DKSs. We show that the quantum fluctuations arising from losses engender a finite lifetime to the soliton, and demonstrate that DKSs correspond to a specific class of dissipative time crystals.