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Concept# Bose–Einstein statistics

Summary

In quantum statistics, Bose–Einstein statistics (B–E statistics) describes one of two possible ways in which a collection of non-interacting, indistinguishable particles may occupy a set of available discrete energy states at thermodynamic equilibrium. The aggregation of particles in the same state, which is a characteristic of particles obeying Bose–Einstein statistics, accounts for the cohesive streaming of laser light and the frictionless creeping of superfluid helium. The theory of this behaviour was developed (1924–25) by Satyendra Nath Bose, who recognized that a collection of identical and indistinguishable particles can be distributed in this way. The idea was later adopted and extended by Albert Einstein in collaboration with Bose.
The Bose–Einstein statistics applies only to the particles not limited to single occupancy of the same state – that is, particles that do not obey the Pauli exclusion principle restrictions. Such particles have integer values of spin and are named

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Hugo Robin Louis Perrin, Matthieu Wyart

Hysteresis is a major feature of the solid-liquid transition in granular materials. This property, by allowing metastable states, can potentially yield catastrophic phenomena such as earthquakes or aerial landslides. The origin of hysteresis in granular flows is still debated. However, most mechanisms put forward so far rely on the presence of inertia at the particle level. In this paper, we study the avalanche dynamics of non-Brownian suspensions in slowly rotating drums and reveal large hysteresis of the avalanche angle even in the absence of inertia. By using microsilica particles whose interparticle friction coefficient can be turned off, we show that microscopic friction, conversely to inertia, is key to triggering hysteresis in granular suspensions. To understand this link between friction and hysteresis, we use the rotating drum as a rheometer to extract the suspension rheology close to the flow onset for both frictional and frictionless suspensions. This analysis shows that the flow rule for frictionless particles is monotonous and follows a power law of exponent alpha = 0.37 +/- 0.05, in close agreement with the previous theoretical prediction, alpha = 0.35. By contrast, the flow rule for frictional particles suggests a velocity-weakening behavior, thereby explaining the flow instability and the emergence of hysteresis. These findings show that hysteresis can also occur in particulate media without inertia, questioning the intimate nature of this phenomenon. By highlighting the role of microscopic friction, our results may be of interest in the geophysical context to understand the failure mechanism at the origin of undersea landslides.

The generation of a quantum fluid of dressed photons at room temperature is experimentally demonstrated in an InGaN microcavity which is divided into two-and one-dimensional sections, resulting in single- and switchable multilevel coherent light emission. Ultra-low-threshold operation is attributed to the slight but robust excitonic fraction of the photonic condensate representing a bosonic laser working below the Mott transition (polariton laser). In contrast to equilibrium Bose-Einstein condensates, the nonequilibrium driven-dissipative nature enables the population of higher orbitals if any confinement potential is present to induce enhanced quantum correlations. Trapping inside microwire spacers leads to a polariton harmonic oscillator resulting in discrete states in an equidistant ladder of photonic orbitals. Level occupation and selection of a specific wave function is managed via optical control, mimicking a quantum emitter on a macroscopic level. It shows that exotic states of matter can be realized in rather simple structures at room temperature directly visible to the human eye. It represents also an excellent opportunity to study basic many-body dynamics in one-dimensional bosonic matter by simultaneously settling an optimized fabrication technique for devices enabling practical Boolean quantum logic gates for optical computing.

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2005