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Concept# M-theory

Summary

M-theory is a theory in physics that unifies all consistent versions of superstring theory. Edward Witten first conjectured the existence of such a theory at a string theory conference at the University of Southern California in 1995 (M-Theory - Edward Witten (1995)). Witten's announcement initiated a flurry of research activity known as the second superstring revolution. Prior to Witten's announcement, string theorists had identified five versions of superstring theory. Although these theories initially appeared to be very different, work by many physicists showed that the theories were related in intricate and nontrivial ways. Physicists found that apparently distinct theories could be unified by mathematical transformations called S-duality and T-duality. Witten's conjecture was based in part on the existence of these dualities and in part on the relationship of the string theories to a field theory calle

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One fundamental problem of modern physics is the search for a theory of everything able to explain the nature of space-time, what matter is and how matter interacts. There are various propositions, as Grand Unified Theory, Quantum Gravity, Supersymmetry, String and Superstring Theories, and M-Theory. However, none of them is able to consistently explain at the present and same time electromagnetism, relativity, gravitation, quantum physics and observed elementary particles. In this book, it is suggested that Universe could be a massive elastic 3D-lattice, and that fundamental building blocks of Ordinary Matter could consist of topological singularities of this lattice, namely diverse dislocation loops and disclination loops. For an isotropic elastic lattice obeying Newton’s law, with specific assumptions on its elastic properties, one obtains the result that the behaviours of this lattice and of its topological defects display “all” known physics, unifying electromagnetism, relativity, gravitation and quantum physics, and resolving some longstanding questions of modern cosmology and particle physics. Moreover, studying lattices with axial symmetries, representedby “colored” cubic 3D-lattices, one has identified a lattice structure whose topological defect loops coincide with the complex zoology of elementary particles, which could open a very promising field of research.

Related concepts (56)

String theory

In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings. String theory describes how these s

Superstring theory

Superstring theory is an attempt to explain all of the particles and fundamental forces of nature in one theory by modeling them as vibrations of tiny supersymmetric strings.
'Superstring theory' is

Theory of everything

A theory of everything (TOE), final theory, ultimate theory, unified field theory or master theory is a hypothetical, singular, all-encompassing, coherent theoretical framework of physics that fully

In this letter, we discuss certain universal predictions of the large charge expansion in conformal field theories with U (1) symmetry, mainly focusing on four-dimensional theories. We show that, while in three dimensions quantum fluctuations are responsible for the existence of a theory-independent Q(0) term in the scaling dimension Delta(Q) of the lightest operator with fixed charge Q >> 1, in four dimensions the same mechanism provides a universal Q(0) log Q correction to Delta(Q). Previous works discussing fourdimensional theories failed in identifying this term. We also compute the first subleading correction to the OPE coefficient corresponding to the insertion of an arbitrary primary operator with small charge q < Q in between the minimal energy states with charge Q and Q + q, both in three and four dimensions. This contribution does not depend on the operator insertion and, similarly to the quantum effects in Delta(Q), in four dimensions it scales logarithmically with Q. (C) 2020 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Related lectures (11)

We use the embedding tensor formalism to analyse maximally symmetric backgrounds of N = 2 gauged supergravities which have the full N = 2 supersymmetry. We state the condition for N = 2 vacua and discuss some of their general properties. We show that if the gauged isometries leave the SU(2) R-symmetry invariant, then the N = 2 vacuum must be Minkowski. This implies that there are no AdS backgrounds with eight unbroken supercharges in the effective N = 2 supergravity of six-dimensional SU(3) x SU(3) structure compactifications of type II string theory and M-theory. Combined with previous results on N = 1 vacua, we show that there exist N = 2 supergravities with a given set of gauged Abelian isometries that have both N = 2 and N = 1 vacua. We also argue that an analogue of our analysis holds in five and six spacetime dimensions.

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