Concept

Gating (electrophysiology)

Summary
In electrophysiology, the term gating refers to the opening (activation) or closing (by deactivation or inactivation) of ion channels. This change in conformation is a response to changes in transmembrane voltage. When ion channels are in a 'closed' (non-conducting) state, they are impermeable to ions and do not conduct electrical current. When ion channels are in their open state, they conduct electrical current by allowing specific types of ions to pass through them, and thus, across the plasma membrane of the cell. Gating is the process by which an ion channel transitions between its open and closed states. A variety of cellular changes can trigger gating, depending on the ion channel, including changes in voltage across the cell membrane (voltage-gated ion channels), chemicals interacting with the ion channel (ligand-gated ion channels), changes in temperature, stretching or deformation of the cell membrane, addition of a phosphate group to the ion channel (phosphorylation), and
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