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Concept# PDF

Summary

Portable Document Format (PDF), standardized as ISO 32000, is a developed by Adobe in 1992 to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems. Based on the PostScript language, each PDF file encapsulates a complete description of a fixed-layout flat document, including the text, fonts, vector graphics, and other information needed to display it. PDF has its roots in "The Camelot Project" initiated by Adobe co-founder John Warnock in 1991.
PDF was standardized as ISO 32000 in 2008. The last edition as ISO 32000-2:2020 was published in December 2020.
PDF files may contain a variety of content besides flat text and graphics including logical structuring elements, interactive elements such as annotations and form-fields, layers, rich media (including video content), three-dimensional objects using U3D or , and various other . The PDF specification also provides for encryption and digital signatur

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PNG

Portable Network Graphics (PNG, officially pronounced pɪŋ , colloquially pronounced ˌpiːɛnˈdʒiː ) is a raster-graphics file that supports lossless data compression. PNG was developed as an improved,

SVG

Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) is an XML-based for defining two-dimensional graphics, having support for interactivity and animation. The SVG specification is an open standard developed by the World

MacOS

macOS (ˌmækoʊˈɛs; previously OS X and originally Mac OS X) is an operating system developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac com

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ME-104 Introduction to Structural Mechanics, EPFL | Spring 2020

Lecture 08 - Plane Trusses (2D)

In the context of a programming course taught to college freshmen, we give an account of the switch from a classical, Moodle-based discussion forum to MIT's NotaBene (NB) platform. One of the defining features of NB is to anchor each discussion thread to a given rectangular zone freely highlightable in any of the course's PDF documents. In doing so, it forces a precise contextualization of every post-be it to a slide from the lectures, to a sentence from the instructions in the exercises, or to lines of code in the given exercise keys. We hypothesize that this feature lowers the contextualization effort needed to ask a question, thus strengthening students' engagement and, ultimately, understanding of the matter. Using historical data on three years of giving the same course, we first examine and classify the students' interventions with both the traditional and the NB-based approach to see if the questions significantly differ qualitatively or quantitatively. We also quantify the contextualization effort needed in both approaches. Finally, we discuss our teacher experience with both platforms and make recommendations on the choice such a discussion forum in a programming course.

In this thesis, we focus on Impulse Radio (IR) Ultra-WideBand (UWB) ranging and positioning techniques under indoor propagation environments. IR-UWB, a new carrierless communication scheme using impulses, is a candidate technology for future communication, ranging and positioning applications. Recent progress on both the technical and regulatory side of this technology has made this possible [1][2][3]. The fine time resolution of UWB signals has created a vision of novel ranging and positioning applications to augment existing narrowband systems operating in dense multipath environments [4][5][6]. We propose a high-resolution IR-UWB ranging algorithm based on Maximum Likelihood (ML) when the noise is additive Gaussian noise or multi-user interference. First, we pose the ranging problem as an ML estimation problem for the channel delays and their amplitudes at the receiver. We evaluate the ranging by translating the received delay estimates into an estimate of the distance. Then, we use the same transformation as the first step of Iterative Quadratic Maximum Likelihood (IQML) and we transform the ML problem into another optimization problem that avoids the estimation of the amplitude coefficients. We solve the remaining optimization problem with a gradient descent approach (Pseudo-Quadratic Maximum Likelihood (PQML) algorithm). Most previous works assume the distribution of the targeted distance is a uniform distribution (for example [7], [8] and [9]). In contrast to the previous works, we propose that the distribution of the targeted distance, which is not necessarily a uniform distribution, should depend on the geometry of the indoor environments of interest. We propose a Bayesian detection algorithm where the prior distribution of the channel follows the IEEE 802.15.4a channel model to identify whether the received signal is Line-Of-Sight (LOS) signal or a Non-Line-Of-Sight (NLOS) signal. If it is a LOS signal, we use a Bayesian estimation approach to estimate the joint posterior probability density function (pdf) of the channel and the targeted distance. We use this pdf function to estimate the ranging with Minimum Mean Square Error Estimator (MMSE). For computing the joint posterior pdf of the channel and the targeted distance, we derive a novel algorithm based on Sampling and Importance Resampling (SIMR) and Expectation Maximum (EM) techniques. Furthermore, we propose a reduced-complexity architecture of an IR-UWB ranging system by using our proposed algorithms. We also implement the Bayesian ranging algorithm on the Xinlix ML410 Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) board. The used FPGA resources show that the Bayesian ranging algorithm is a low-complexity algorithm. We derive a novel Ziv-Zakai lower bound for IR-UWB ranging error that depends on the geometry of the indoor environments of interest. In contrast to the work in [7], we do not introduce, during our derivation process, any approximation for our log-likelihood function. Therefore, we obtain a more accurate Ziv-Zakai lower bound for the IR-UWB ranging error with IEEE 802.15.4a channel models. Based on the geometry of the indoor environments of interest, we can find the "best" position of the base station that provides the lowest Ziv-Zakai lower bound of the IR-UWB ranging error. Our bound can also be used in real environments with the channel measurements from real environments. We also propose that the distribution of the targeted position should depend on the geometry of the indoor environments of interest. We propose a novel one-step approach that estimates the position and channels directly and jointly from the received signals of the used base stations. We use a Bayesian approach where the prior distribution of the channels follows the IEEE 802.15.4a channel model to estimate the joint posterior pdf of the channels, the targeted position and the transmit time. One application of the joint posterior pdf of the channels, the targeted position and the transmit time is the determination of the position with classical posterior estimator (such as MMSE). For computing the joint posterior pdf of the channels, the targeted position and the transmit time, we derived an algorithm that is based on SIMR and EM techniques. We derive Ziv-Zakai position error lower bounds for a one-step positioning scheme, a Time Of Arrival (TOA)-based positioning scheme and a Time Difference Of Arrival (TDOA)-based positioning scheme. As our derived bounds depend on the geometry of the indoor environments of interest, our bounds can also be used in real environments with the channel measurements from real environments. Multi-User Interference (MUI) statistical models for IR-UWB systems can be important in providing an accurate estimate of the channel state. As such, it can have a major impact on the overall system performance. In the literature, MUI in the time domain is often approximated with Middleton class A and Gaussian Mixture Models. We use measurements from an indoor IR-UWB testbed to assess the validity of these models. We analyzed the statistical properties of IR-UWB MUI with the measurements from real indoor environments.

Ludovica Cotta-Ramusino, John Maddocks

We consider an elastic chain at thermodynamic equilibrium with a heat bath, and derive an approximation to the probability density function, or pdf, governing the relative location and orientation of the two ends of the chain. Our motivation is to exploit continuum mechanics models for the computation of DNA looping probabilities, but here we focus on explaining the novel analytical aspects in the derivation of our approximation formula. Accordingly, and for simplicity, the current presentation is limited to the illustrative case of planar configurations. A path integral formalism is adopted, and, in the standard way, the first approximation to the looping pdf is obtained from a minimal energy configuration satisfying prescribed end conditions. Then we compute an additional factor in the pdf which encompasses the contributions of quadratic fluctuations about the minimum energy configuration along with a simultaneous evaluation of the partition function. The original aspects of our analysis are twofold. First, the quadratic Lagrangian describing the fluctuations has cross-terms that are linear in first derivatives. This, seemingly small, deviation from the structure of standard path integral examples complicates the necessary analysis significantly. Nevertheless, after a nonlinear change of variable of Riccati type, we show that the correction factor to the pdf can still be evaluated in terms of the solution to an initial value problem for the linear system of Jacobi ordinary differential equations associated with the second variation. The second novel aspect of our analysis is that we show that the Hamiltonian form of these linear Jacobi equations still provides the appropriate correction term in the inextensible, unshearable limit that is commonly adopted in polymer physics models of, e. g. DNA. Prior analyses of the inextensible case have had to introduce nonlinear and nonlocal integral constraints to express conditions on the relative displacement of the end points. Our approximation formula for the looping pdf is of quite general applicability as, in contrast to most prior approaches, no assumption is made of either uniformity of the elastic chain, nor of a straight intrinsic shape. If the chain is uniform the Jacobi system evaluated at certain minimum energy configurations has constant coefficients. In such cases our approximate pdf can be evaluated in an entirely explicit, closed form. We illustrate our analysis with a planar example of this type and compute an approximate probability of cyclization, i.e., of forming a closed loop, from a uniform elastic chain whose intrinsic shape is an open circular arc.

2010