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Concept# Second

Summary

The second (symbol: s) is the unit of time in the International System of Units (SI), historically defined as of a day – this factor derived from the division of the day first into 24 hours, then to 60 minutes and finally to 60 seconds each (24 × 60 × 60 = 86400).
The current and formal definition in the International System of Units (SI) is more precise:The second [...] is defined by taking the fixed numerical value of the caesium frequency, ΔνCs, the unperturbed ground-state hyperfine transition frequency of the caesium 133 atom, to be 9 192 631 770 when expressed in the unit Hz, which is equal to s−1.
This current definition was adopted in 1967 when it became feasible to define the second based on fundamental properties of nature with caesium clocks. Because the speed of Earth's rotation varies and is slowing ever so slightly, a leap second is added at irregular intervals to civil time to keep clocks in sync with Earth's rotation.
Uses
Analog clocks and watches often

Official source

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Silicon nitride (Si3N4) is commonly employed to integrate third-order nonlinear optical processes on a chip. Its amorphous state, however, inhibits significant second-order nonlinear response. Recently, second-harmonic generation enhancement has been observed in Si3N4 waveguides after an all-optical poling (AOP) method. Here we demonstrate that, after AOP of a Si3N4 waveguide, for up to 2 W of coupled pump power, the same telecom-band signal undergoes larger interband wavelength conversion efficiency, based on sum-frequency generation (SFG), than intraband wavelength conversion, based on four-wave mixing. We also confirm the appearance of a phase-matching condition after AOP by measuring the conversion bandwidth and efficiency of SFG at different pump wavelengths. (C) 2018 Optical Society of America

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Desmond Chow Ming Chia, Pabitro Ray, Marcelo Alfonso Soto Hernandez, Luc Thévenaz, Zhisheng Yang

A Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) method based on a closed-loop control system is proposed to track fast variations of the Brillouin frequency shift along the sensing fiber. Whilst the method eliminates the gain spectral scanning, the exact distributed Brillouin frequency profile is retrieved directly from the output of a closed-loop controller with no need of post-processing. Moreover, as the operating frequency is being continuously updated to follow the Brillouin frequency change, an unlimited temperature or strain measurement range can be achieved. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results validate that the closed-loop controlled BOTDA acts as a low-pass filter that considerably rejects the noise from photodetector, with an efficiency which fundamentally outperforms basic averaging. By optimizing the closed-loop parameters, the measurement time is reduced from a few minutes to a couple of seconds compared with standard BOTDA, i.e., two orders of magnitude improvement in terms of measurement speed, while keeping the same accuracy and measurement conditions. If the sampling time interval that is limited by our instrument can be further reduced, the method offers the potentiality of km-range sensing with sub-second measurement time, with an unmatched favorable trade-off between measurand accuracy and closed-loop delay.

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The second- and third-order coherence functions g((n))(0) (n= 2 and 3) of an exciton-polariton condensate are measured and compared to the theory. Contrary to an ideal photon laser, deviation from unity in the second- and third-order coherence functions is observed, thus showing a bunching effect, but not the characteristics of a standard thermal state with g((n))(0) = n!. The increase in bunching with the order of the coherence function, g((3))(0) > g((2))(0) > 1, indicates that the polariton condensate is different from a coherent state, a number state, or a thermal state. The measurement of third-order coherence has the advantage, compared to the second-order one, that the difference between a thermal state and a coherent state is more pronounced. The experimental results are in agreement with the theoretical model where polariton-polariton and polariton-phonon interactions are responsible for the loss of temporal coherence.

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