Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (Андрей Дмитриевич Сахаров; 21 May 1921 14 December 1989) was a Soviet physicist and a Nobel Peace Prize laureate, which he was awarded in 1975 for emphasizing human rights around the world.
Although he spent his career in physics in the Soviet program of nuclear weapons, overseeing the development of thermonuclear weapons, Sakharov also did fundamental work in understanding particle physics, magnetism, and physical cosmology. Sakaharov is mostly known for his political activism for individual freedom, human rights, civil liberties and reforms in Russia, for which, he was deemed as a dissident and faced persecution from the Soviet establishment.
In his memory, the Sakharov Prize is established by the European Parliament which is awarded annually for the people and organizations dedicated to human rights and freedoms.
Family background and early life
Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov was born in Moscow on 21 May 1921, in