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Concept# Quantum hydrodynamics

Summary

In condensed matter physics, quantum hydrodynamics is most generally the study of hydrodynamic-like systems which demonstrate quantum mechanical behavior. They arise in semiclassical mechanics in the study of metal and semiconductor devices, in which case being derived from the Boltzmann transport equation combined with Wigner quasiprobability distribution. In quantum chemistry they arise as solutions to chemical kinetic systems, in which case they are derived from the Schrödinger equation by way of Madelung equations.
An important system of study in quantum hydrodynamics is that of superfluidity. Some other topics of interest in quantum hydrodynamics are quantum turbulence, quantized vortices, second and third sound, and quantum solvents. The quantum hydrodynamic equation is an equation in Bohmian mechanics, which, it turns out, has a mathematical relationship to classical fluid dynamics (see Madelung equations).
Some common experimental applications of these studies are in liquid helium (3He and 4He), and of the interior of neutron stars and the quark–gluon plasma. Many famous scientists have worked in quantum hydrodynamics, including Richard Feynman, Lev Landau, and Pyotr Kapitsa.

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Liquid helium

Liquid helium is a physical state of helium at very low temperatures at standard atmospheric pressures. Liquid helium may show superfluidity. At standard pressure, the chemical element helium exists in a liquid form only at the extremely low temperature of . Its boiling point and critical point depend on which isotope of helium is present: the common isotope helium-4 or the rare isotope helium-3. These are the only two stable isotopes of helium. See the table below for the values of these physical quantities.

Superfluid helium-4

Superfluid helium-4 is the superfluid form of helium-4, an isotope of the element helium. A superfluid is a state of matter in which matter behaves like a fluid with zero viscosity. The substance, which looks like a normal liquid, flows without friction past any surface, which allows it to continue to circulate over obstructions and through pores in containers which hold it, subject only to its own inertia. The formation of the superfluid is known to be related to the formation of a Bose–Einstein condensate.

Richard Feynman

Richard Phillips Feynman (ˈfaɪnmən; May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as his work in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model. For his contributions to the development of quantum electrodynamics, Feynman received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965 jointly with Julian Schwinger and Shin'ichirō Tomonaga.

Classical Equations and Conservation Laws

Explores classical equations, conservation laws, and quantum distributions in various systems, shedding light on particle behavior.

Mathieu François Padlewski, Philip Johannes Walter Moll, Matthias Carsten Putzke, Hao Yang

Whereas electron-phonon scattering relaxes the electron's momentum in metals, a perpetual exchange of momentum between phonons and electrons may conserve total momentum and lead to a coupled electron-phonon liquid. Such a phase of matter could be a platfor ...

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The angular momentum of rotating superfluid droplets originates from quantized vortices and capillary waves, the interplay between which remains to be uncovered. Here, the rotation of isolated submicrometer superfluid He-4 droplets is studied by ultrafast ...

Nicola Marzari, Andrea Cepellotti, Michele Simoncelli

Heat conduction in dielectric crystals originates from the dynamics of atomic vibrations, whose evolution is well described by the linearized Boltzmann transport equation for the phonon populations. Recently, it was shown that thermal conductivity can be r ...

2020