Concept

Kharja

Summary
A kharja or kharjah (خرجة tr. kharjah ˈxærdʒɐ, meaning "final"; jarcha ˈxaɾtʃa; carja ˈkaɾʒɐ; also known as markaz), is the final refrain of a muwashshah, a lyric genre of Al-Andalus (the Islamic Iberian Peninsula) written in Arabic or Andalusi Romance (Mozarabic). The muwashshah consists of five stanzas (bait) of four to six lines, alternating with five or six refrains (qufl); each refrain has the same rhyme and metre, whereas each stanza has only the same metre. The kharja appears often to have been composed independently of the muwashshah in which it is found. Characteristics of the kharja About a third of extant kharjas are written in Classical Arabic. Most of the remainder are in Andalusi Arabic, but there are about seventy examples that are written either in Ibero-Romance or with significant Romance elements. None are recorded in Hebrew even when the muwashshah is in Hebrew. Generally, though not always, the kharja is presented as a quotation from a speaker who is in
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