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Concept# Wave–particle duality

Summary

Wave–particle duality is the concept in quantum mechanics that quantum entities exhibit both particle and a wave properties according to the experimental circumstances. It expresses the inability of the classical concepts "particle" or "wave" to fully describe the behaviour of quantum-scale objects. As Albert Einstein wrote:
It seems as though we must use sometimes the one theory and sometimes the other, while at times we may use either. We are faced with a new kind of difficulty. We have two contradictory pictures of reality; separately neither of them fully explains the phenomena of light, but together they do.
Through the work of Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Louis de Broglie, Arthur Compton, Niels Bohr, Erwin Schrödinger and many others, current scientific theory holds that all particles exhibit a wave nature and vice versa. This phenomenon has been verified not only for elementary particles, but also for compound particles like atoms and even molecules. For macroscopic particles,

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Edward Ando, Gioacchino Viggiani

Water significantly influences the mechanical behaviour of all granular materials but none as much as hygroscopic amorphous particles. With sufficiently high water content, particles can swell, agglomerate and their mechanical properties can be reduced, having direct effects on the macroscopic response of the material. In the food and pharmaceutical industry this can cause loss of product functionality. Despite their relevance, very little is known about the microscopic processes that induce these phenomena. Previous studies focused on single particle behaviour, the strength of agglomerated particles and the material flowability, leaving unexplored the link connecting the particle behaviour and the bulk response. This experimental study aims to investigate this aspect with quantitative measurements at both particle and macroscopic scales. A sample of fine couscous is exposed to a high relative humidity (RH) air flow, while being subjected to oedometric conditions, in order to reproduce the storage-silo conditions. In the meantime, X-ray tomographies are acquired continuously and the resulting images are analysed. The designed spatial resolution allows each particle of the sample to be identified and tracked, allowing volumetric evolution to be compared to the properties of the whole sample. The analysis reveals a dilation-compaction macroscopic behaviour, a result of the competition between the particle swelling and the higher deformability as the water content increases. The number, orientations and inter-particle contacts are computed. Their area is related to the applied boundary conditions, and is found to be consistent with the particle swelling and dependent on the applied stress direction.

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Basic wave-particle interaction dynamics from linear to chaotic regimes is experimentally studied on a frequency tunable gyrotron generating THz radiation in continuous mode (200W) at 263GHz which will be used for dynamic nuclear polarization nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy applications. In the studied system, the nonlinear dynamics associated to the waveparticle interaction is dominated by longitudinal mode competition of a given transverse TEm;p cavity-mode. This study covers a wide range of control parameter from gyro-traveling wave tube (gyro-TWT) to gyro-backward wave oscillator (gyro-BWO) like interactions for which extensive theoretical studies have been performed in the past on a simplified system. Besides the common route to chaos characterized by period doubling, other routes have been identified among which some are characterized by line-width frequency-broadening on the side-bands. The complex nonlinear dynamics is in good agreement with the theory and the experimental results are discussed on the basis of the prediction obtained with the nonlinear time-dependent selfconsistent codes TWANG and EURIDICE both based on a slow-time scale formulation of the self-consistent equations governing the wave-particle dynamics. VC

Classical soft graviton theorem gives the gravitational wave-form at future null infinity at late retarded time u for a general classical scattering. The large u expansion has three known universal terms: the constant term, the term proportional to 1/u and the term proportional to ln u/u(2), whose coefficients are determined solely in terms of the momenta of incoming and the outgoing hard particles, including the momenta carried by outgoing gravitational and electromagnetic radiation produced during scattering. For the constant term, also known as the memory effect, the dependence on the momenta carried away by the final state radiation / massless particles is known as non-linear memory or null memory. It was shown earlier that for the coefficient of the 1/u term the dependence on the momenta of the final state massless particles / radiation cancels and the result can be written solely in terms of the momenta of the incoming particles / radiation and the final state massive particles. In this note we show that the same result holds for the coefficient of the ln u/u(2) term. Our result implies that for scattering of massless particles the coefficients of the 1/u and ln u/u(2) terms are determined solely by the incoming momenta, even if the particles coalesce to form a black hole and massless radiation. We use our result to compute the low frequency flux of gravitational radiation from the collision of massless particles at large impact parameter.