Concept

Persistent carbene

Summary
A persistent carbene (also known as stable carbene) is a type of carbene demonstrating particular stability. The best-known examples and by far largest subgroup are the N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) (sometimes called Arduengo carbenes), for example diaminocarbenes with the general formula (R2N)2C:, where the four R moieties are typically alkyl and aryl groups. The groups can be linked to give heterocyclic carbenes, such as those derived from imidazole, imidazoline, thiazole or triazole. Traditionally carbenes are viewed as so reactive that were only studied indirectly, such as by trapping reactions. This situation has changed dramatically with the emergence of persistent carbenes. Although they are fairly reactive substances, undergoing dimerization, many can be isolated as pure substances. Persistent carbenes tend to exist in the singlet. Their stability is only partly due to steric hindrance by bulky groups. Some singlet carbenes are thermodynamically stable and can be isolated an
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