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Concept# NumPy

Summary

NumPy (pronounced ˈnʌmpaɪ () or sometimes ˈnʌmpi ()) is a library for the Python programming language, adding support for large, multi-dimensional arrays and matrices, along with a large collection of high-level mathematical functions to operate on these arrays. The predecessor of NumPy, Numeric, was originally created by Jim Hugunin with contributions from several other developers. In 2005, Travis Oliphant created NumPy by incorporating features of the competing Numarray into Numeric, with extensive modifications. NumPy is open-source software and has many contributors. NumPy is a NumFOCUS fiscally sponsored project.
The Python programming language was not originally designed for numerical computing, but attracted the attention of the scientific and engineering community early on. In 1995 the special interest group (SIG) matrix-sig was founded with the aim of defining an array computing package; among its members was Python designer and maintainer Guido van Rossum, who extended Python's syntax (in particular the indexing syntax) to make array computing easier.
An implementation of a matrix package was completed by Jim Fulton, then generalized by Jim Hugunin and called Numeric (also variously known as the "Numerical Python extensions" or "NumPy").
Hugunin, a graduate student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), joined the Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI) in 1997 to work on JPython, leaving Paul Dubois of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to take over as maintainer. Other early contributors include David Ascher, Konrad Hinsen and Travis Oliphant.
A new package called Numarray was written as a more flexible replacement for Numeric. Like Numeric, it too is now deprecated. Numarray had faster operations for large arrays, but was slower than Numeric on small ones, so for a time both packages were used in parallel for different use cases. The last version of Numeric (v24.2) was released on 11 November 2005, while the last version of numarray (v1.5.2) was released on 24 August 2006.

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