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Concept# Additive identity

Summary

In mathematics, the additive identity of a set that is equipped with the operation of addition is an element which, when added to any element x in the set, yields x. One of the most familiar additive identities is the number 0 from elementary mathematics, but additive identities occur in other mathematical structures where addition is defined, such as in groups and rings.
The additive identity familiar from elementary mathematics is zero, denoted 0. For example,
In the natural numbers \N (if 0 is included), the integers \Z, the rational numbers \Q, the real numbers \R, and the complex numbers \C, the additive identity is 0. This says that for a number n belonging to any of these sets,
Let N be a group that is closed under the operation of addition, denoted +. An additive identity for N, denoted e, is an element in N such that for any element n in N,
In a group, the additive identity is the identity element of the group, is often denoted 0, and is unique (see below for proof).
A ring or field is a group under the operation of addition and thus these also have a unique additive identity 0. This is defined to be different from the multiplicative identity 1 if the ring (or field) has more than one element. If the additive identity and the multiplicative identity are the same, then the ring is trivial (proved below).
In the ring Mm × n(R) of m-by-n matrices over a ring R, the additive identity is the zero matrix, denoted O or 0, and is the m-by-n matrix whose entries consist entirely of the identity element 0 in R. For example, in the 2×2 matrices over the integers \operatorname{M}_2(\Z) the additive identity is
In the quaternions, 0 is the additive identity.
In the ring of functions from \R \to \R, the function mapping every number to 0 is the additive identity.
In the additive group of vectors in \R^n, the origin or zero vector is the additive identity.
Let (G, +) be a group and let 0 and 0' in G both denote additive identities, so for any g in G,
It then follows from the above that
In a system with a multiplication operation that distributes over addition, the additive identity is a multiplicative absorbing element, meaning that for any s in S, s · 0 = 0.

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Additive identity

In mathematics, the additive identity of a set that is equipped with the operation of addition is an element which, when added to any element x in the set, yields x. One of the most familiar additive identities is the number 0 from elementary mathematics, but additive identities occur in other mathematical structures where addition is defined, such as in groups and rings. The additive identity familiar from elementary mathematics is zero, denoted 0.

Real number

In mathematics, a real number is a number that can be used to measure a continuous one-dimensional quantity such as a distance, duration or temperature. Here, continuous means that pairs of values can have arbitrarily small differences. Every real number can be almost uniquely represented by an infinite decimal expansion. The real numbers are fundamental in calculus (and more generally in all mathematics), in particular by their role in the classical definitions of limits, continuity and derivatives.

−1

In mathematics, −1 (negative one or minus one) is the additive inverse of 1, that is, the number that when added to 1 gives the additive identity element, 0. It is the negative integer greater than negative two (−2) and less than 0. Multiplying a number by −1 is equivalent to changing the sign of the number – that is, for any x we have (−1) ⋅ x = −x. This can be proved using the distributive law and the axiom that 1 is the multiplicative identity: x + (−1) ⋅ x = 1 ⋅ x + (−1) ⋅ x = (1 + (−1)) ⋅ x = 0 ⋅ x = 0.

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