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Concept# Caesar cipher

Summary

In cryptography, a Caesar cipher, also known as Caesar's cipher, the shift cipher, Caesar's code, or Caesar shift, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. It is a type of substitution cipher in which each letter in the plaintext is replaced by a letter some fixed number of positions down the alphabet. For example, with a left shift of 3, would be replaced by , would become , and so on. The method is named after Julius Caesar, who used it in his private correspondence.
The encryption step performed by a Caesar cipher is often incorporated as part of more complex schemes, such as the Vigenère cipher, and still has modern application in the ROT13 system. As with all single-alphabet substitution ciphers, the Caesar cipher is easily broken and in modern practice offers essentially no communications security.
The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets; the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions. For instance, here is a Caesar cipher using a left rotation of three places, equivalent to a right shift of 23 (the shift parameter is used as the key):
When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the "plain" line and writes down the corresponding letter in the "cipher" line.
Plaintext: THE QUICK BROWN FOX JUMPS OVER THE LAZY DOG
Ciphertext: QEB NRFZH YOLTK CLU GRJMP LSBO QEB IXWV ALD
Deciphering is done in reverse, with a right shift of 3.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A → 0, B → 1, ..., Z → 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as,
Decryption is performed similarly,
(Here, "mod" refers to the modulo operation. The value x is in the range 0 to 25, but if x + n or x − n are not in this range then 26 should be added or subtracted.)
The replacement remains the same throughout the message, so the cipher is classed as a type of monoalphabetic substitution, as opposed to polyalphabetic substitution.

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Caesar cipher

In cryptography, a Caesar cipher, also known as Caesar's cipher, the shift cipher, Caesar's code, or Caesar shift, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. It is a type of substitution cipher in which each letter in the plaintext is replaced by a letter some fixed number of positions down the alphabet. For example, with a left shift of 3, would be replaced by , would become , and so on. The method is named after Julius Caesar, who used it in his private correspondence.

Cryptography

Cryptography, or cryptology (from κρυπτός "hidden, secret"; and γράφειν graphein, "to write", or -λογία -logia, "study", respectively), is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of adversarial behavior. More generally, cryptography is about constructing and analyzing protocols that prevent third parties or the public from reading private messages. Modern cryptography exists at the intersection of the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, information security, electrical engineering, digital signal processing, physics, and others.

Ciphertext

In cryptography, ciphertext or cyphertext is the result of encryption performed on plaintext using an algorithm, called a cipher. Ciphertext is also known as encrypted or encoded information because it contains a form of the original plaintext that is unreadable by a human or computer without the proper cipher to decrypt it. This process prevents the loss of sensitive information via hacking. Decryption, the inverse of encryption, is the process of turning ciphertext into readable plaintext.

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The block cipher MMB was designed by Daemen, Govaerts and Vandewalle, in 1993, as an alternative to the IDEA block cipher. We exploit and describe unusual properties of the modular multiplication in $Z_{2^{32} - 1}$, which lead to a differential attack on the full 6-round MMB cipher (both versions 1.0 and 2.0). Further contributions of this paper include detailed square and linear cryptanalysis of MMB. Concerning differential cryptanalysis (DC), we can break the full MMB with 2^118 chosen plaintexts, 2^95.91 6-round MMB encryptions and 2^64 counters, effectively bypassing the cipher's countermeasures against DC. For the square attack, we can recover the 128-bit user key for 4-round MMB with 2^34 chosen plaintexts, 2^126.32 4-round encryptions and 2^64 memory blocks. Concerning linear cryptanalysis, we present a key-recovery attack on 3-round MMB requiring 2^114.56 known-plaintexts and 2^126 encryptions. Moreover, we detail a ciphertext-only attack on 2-round MMB using 2^93.6 ciphertexts and 2^93.6 parity computations. These attacks do not depend on weak-key or weak-subkey assumptions, and are thus independent of the key schedule algorithm.

2009The block cipher MMB was designed by Daemen, Govaerts and Vandewalle, in 1993, as an alternative to the IDEA block cipher. We exploit and describe unusual properties of the modular multiplication in ZZ232 −1 , which lead to a diﬀerential attack on the full 6-round MMB cipher (both versions 1.0 and 2.0). Further contributions of this paper include detailed square and linear cryptanalysis of MMB. Concerning diﬀerential cryptanalysis (DC), we can break the full MMB with 2118 chosen plaintexts, 295.91 6-round MMB encryptions and 264 counters, eﬀectively bypassing the cipher’s countermeasures against DC. For the square attack, we can recover the 128-bit user key for 4-round MMB with 234 chosen plaintexts, 2126.32 4-round encryptions and 264 mem- ory blocks. Concerning linear cryptanalysis, we present a key-recovery attack on 3-round MMB requiring 2114.56 known-plaintexts and 2126 en- cryptions. Moreover, we detail a ciphertext-only attack on 2-round MMB using 293.6 ciphertexts and 293.6 parity computations. These attacks do not depend on weak-key or weak-subkey assumptions, and are thus in- dependent of the key schedule algorithm.

The contributions of this paper are new 6-round impossible-differential (ID) and 9.75-round known-key distinguishers for the 3D block cipher. The former was constructed using the miss-in-the-middle technique, while the latter with an inside-out technique. These are the largest ID and known-key distinguishers obtained for the 3D cipher so far, based on the fact that complete diffusion is achieved after three full rounds. Thus, we exploited the slow diffusion in 3D to attack the largest possible number of rounds. The ID distinguishers lead to improved attacks on 10-round variants of the 3D cipher, in the single-key (non related-key) model. These results represent the currently best attacks reported on reduced-round 3D cipher.