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Concept# Normal space

Summary

In topology and related branches of mathematics, a normal space is a topological space X that satisfies Axiom T4: every two disjoint closed sets of X have disjoint open neighborhoods. A normal Hausdorff space is also called a T4 space. These conditions are examples of separation axioms and their further strengthenings define completely normal Hausdorff spaces, or T5 spaces, and perfectly normal Hausdorff spaces, or T6 spaces.
A topological space X is a normal space if, given any disjoint closed sets E and F, there are neighbourhoods U of E and V of F that are also disjoint. More intuitively, this condition says that E and F can be separated by neighbourhoods.
A T4 space is a T1 space X that is normal; this is equivalent to X being normal and Hausdorff.
A completely normal space, or , is a topological space X such that every subspace of X with subspace topology is a normal space. It turns out that X is completely normal if and only if every two separated sets can be separated by neighbourhoods. Also, X is completely normal if and only if every open subset of X is normal with the subspace topology.
A T5 space, or completely T4 space, is a completely normal T1 space X, which implies that X is Hausdorff; equivalently, every subspace of X must be a T4 space.
A perfectly normal space is a topological space in which every two disjoint closed sets and can be precisely separated by a function, in the sense that there is a continuous function from to the interval such that and . This is a stronger separation property than normality, as by Urysohn's lemma disjoint closed sets in a normal space can be separated by a function, in the sense of and , but not precisely separated in general. It turns out that X is perfectly normal if and only if X is normal and every closed set is a Gδ set. Equivalently, X is perfectly normal if and only if every closed set is the zero set of a continuous function. The equivalence between these three characterizations is called Vedenissoff's theorem.

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In topology and related branches of mathematics, Tychonoff spaces and completely regular spaces are kinds of topological spaces. These conditions are examples of separation axioms. A Tychonoff space refers to any completely regular space that is also a Hausdorff space; there exist completely regular spaces that are not Tychonoff (i.e. not Hausdorff). Tychonoff spaces are named after Andrey Nikolayevich Tychonoff, whose Russian name (Тихонов) is variously rendered as "Tychonov", "Tikhonov", "Tihonov", "Tichonov", etc.

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In topology, the Tietze extension theorem (also known as the Tietze–Urysohn–Brouwer extension theorem or Urysohn-Brouwer lemma) states that continuous functions on a closed subset of a normal topological space can be extended to the entire space, preserving boundedness if necessary. If is a normal space and is a continuous map from a closed subset of into the real numbers carrying the standard topology, then there exists a of to that is, there exists a map continuous on all of with for all Moreover, may be chosen such that that is, if is bounded then may be chosen to be bounded (with the same bound as ).

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