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Concept# Low-density parity-check code

Summary

In information theory, a low-density parity-check (LDPC) code is a linear error correcting code, a method of transmitting a message over a noisy transmission channel. An LDPC code is constructed using a sparse Tanner graph (subclass of the bipartite graph). LDPC codes are , which means that practical constructions exist that allow the noise threshold to be set very close to the theoretical maximum (the Shannon limit) for a symmetric memoryless channel. The noise threshold defines an upper bound for the channel noise, up to which the probability of lost information can be made as small as desired. Using iterative belief propagation techniques, LDPC codes can be decoded in time linear to their block length.
LDPC codes are finding increasing use in applications requiring reliable and highly efficient information transfer over bandwidth-constrained or return-channel-constrained links in the presence of corrupting noise. Implementation of LDPC codes has lagged behind that of other codes,

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The concepts of pseudocodeword and pseudoweight play a fundamental role in the finite-length analysis of LDPC codes. The pseudoredundancy of a binary linear code is defined as the minimum number of rows in a parity-check matrix such that the corresponding minimum pseudoweight equals its minimum Hamming distance. By using the value assignment of Chen and Klove we present new results on the pseudocode-word redundancy of binary linear codes. In particular, we give several upper bounds on the pseudoredundancies of certain codes with repeated and added coordinates and of certain shortened subcodes. We also investigate several kinds of k-dimensional binary codes and compute their exact pseudocodeword redundancy.

2019Peter Allan Berlin, Daniela Tuninetti

We study coding over a class of two-user broadcast channels with additive white Gaussian noise and fading known at the receivers only. Joint decoding of low-density parity-check codes is analyzed. The message update rule at the mapping node linking the users' codes is derived and is shown to exhibit an interesting soft interference cancellation property. Good degree distributions are found using the differential evolution optimization technique and extrinsic information transfer analysis. The corresponding codes have rates close to the boundary of the achievable region for binary constrained input channels, both with and without fading. Simulation results for moderate blocklength show that the optimized codes operate within 1 dB of their thresholds.

2004This dissertation presents a systematic exposition on finite-block-length coding theory and practice. We begin with the task of identifying the maximum achievable rates over noisy, finite-block-length constrained channels, referred to as (ε, n)-capacity Cεn, with ε denoting target block-error probability and n the block length. We characterize how the optimum codes look like over finite-block-length constrained channels. Constructing good, short-block-length error-correcting codes defined on sparse graphs is the focus of the thesis. We propose a new, general method for constructing Tanner graphs having a large girth by progressively establishing edges or connections between symbol and check nodes in an edge-by-edge manner, called progressive edge-growth (PEG) construction. Lower bounds on the girth of PEG Tanner graphs and on the minimum distance of the resulting low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes are derived in terms of parameters of the graphs. The PEG construction attains essentially the same girth as Gallager's explicit construction for regular graphs, both of which meet or exceed an extension of the Erdös-Sachs bound. The PEG construction proves to be powerful for generating good, short-block-length binary LDPC codes. Furthermore, we show that the binary interpretation of GF(2b) codes on the cycle Tanner graph TG(2, dc), if b grows sufficiently large, can be used over the binary-input additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel as "good code for optimum decoding" and "good code for iterative decoding". Codes on sparse graphs are often decoded iteratively by a sum-product algorithm (SPA) with low complexity. We investigate efficient digital implementations of the SPA for decoding binary LDPC codes from both the architectural and algorithmic point of view, and describe new reduced-complexity derivatives thereof. The unified treatment of decoding techniques for LDPC codes provides flexibility in selecting the appropriate design point in high-speed applications from a performance, latency, and computational complexity perspective.

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