Concept# Calculus

Summary

Calculus is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape, and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations.
It has two major branches, differential calculus and integral calculus; the former concerns instantaneous rates of change, and the slopes of curves, while the latter concerns accumulation of quantities, and areas under or between curves. These two branches are related to each other by the fundamental theorem of calculus, and they make use of the fundamental notions of convergence of infinite sequences and infinite series to a well-defined limit.
Infinitesimal calculus was developed independently in the late 17th century by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Later work, including codifying the idea of limits, put these developments on a more solid conceptual footing. Today, calculus has widespread uses in science, engineering, and social science.
Etymology
In mathematics education, calcul

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Guillaume André Fradji Martres

The Dependent Object Type (DOT) calculus was designed to put Scala on a sound basis, but while DOT relies on structural subtyping, Scala is a fundamentally class-based language. This impedance mismatch means that a proof of DOT soundness by itself is not enough to declare a particular subset of the language as sound. While a few examples of Scala snippets have been manually translated into DOT, no systematic compilation scheme has been presented so far. In this report we take advantage of the fact that the Featherweight Generic Java (FGJ) calculus can be seen as a subset of Scala (you just have to squint a little bit!) and present a compilation scheme from cast-less FGJ into DOT as well as a proof that a well-typed cast-less FGJ program compiles down to a well-typed DOT term. Due to limitations in DOT subtyping rules, this requires imposing one limitation on our source program: the type parameters of the base types of a class can never refer back to the class itself (this excludes class C extends B[C] as well as class D extends B[E]; class E extends D). While this result is not especially interesting by itself given that FGJ is already known to be sound, it is a first step towards establishing soundness for larger subsets of Scala like the Pathless Scala calculus, the author plans to pursue this in his thesis (currently under preparation) which will also include the content of this report. It also clearly illustrates limitations in DOT that future work may wish to focus on.

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The objective of this PhD thesis is the translation of, and the mathematical commentary on, a 16th-century Latin book. Its author, Diego Palomino is not well known. With a background in theology, he was a prior. In order to obtain his PhD at the University of Alcala (Madrid), he submitted a work, De mutations æris, in which he included a collection of what seems to be readings notes, entitled Fragmentum de inventionibus scientiarum. His readings have been drawn from various famous mathematicians of his time and ancient ones. The originality of his work relies mostly on his inventiveness and his style —which can be sarcastic— making the reading of it quite interesting and lively. His work consists for the main part in explaining some unclear demonstrations, or bringing new methods of solution ; he also innovates in solving pairs of indeterminate equations by providing the complete set of integral solutions. Before him, only one mathematician (Abu ̄ K ̄amil, at the end of the 10th century) did so, the other mathematicians restricting themselves to giving only one solution or a pair. Palomino did not hesitate in criticizing a well-established theory in ancient mathematics, namely Archimedes —although his critics seem to rely on a faulty edition. His book is entitled to have a significant place in the history of mathematics, for it both maintains the rigor of Greek classical mathematics and announces innovation, as did the 17th century, culminating with the discovery of the infinitesimal calculus.