**Are you an EPFL student looking for a semester project?**

Work with us on data science and visualisation projects, and deploy your project as an app on top of GraphSearch.

Concept# Phase transition

Summary

In chemistry, thermodynamics, and other related fields, a phase transition (or phase change) is the physical process of transition between one state of a medium and another. Commonly the term is used to refer to changes among the basic states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas, and in rare cases, plasma. A phase of a thermodynamic system and the states of matter have uniform physical properties. During a phase transition of a given medium, certain properties of the medium change as a result of the change of external conditions, such as temperature or pressure. This can be a discontinuous change; for example, a liquid may become gas upon heating to its boiling point, resulting in an abrupt change in volume. The identification of the external conditions at which a transformation occurs defines the phase transition point.
Types of phase transition
States of matter
vapor pressure and phase diagram
Phase transitions commonly refer to when a substance transforms betwee

Official source

This page is automatically generated and may contain information that is not correct, complete, up-to-date, or relevant to your search query. The same applies to every other page on this website. Please make sure to verify the information with EPFL's official sources.

Related publications

Loading

Related people

Loading

Related units

Loading

Related concepts

Loading

Related courses

Loading

Related lectures

Loading

Related people (166)

Related publications (100)

Loading

Loading

Loading

Related concepts (142)

Superconductivity

Superconductivity is a set of physical properties observed in certain materials where electrical resistance vanishes and magnetic fields are expelled from the material. Any material exhibiting these

Entropy

Entropy is a scientific concept, as well as a measurable physical property, that is most commonly associated with a state of disorder, randomness, or uncertainty. The term and the concept are used in

Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, work, and temperature, and their relation to energy, entropy, and the physical properties of matter and radiation. The behavior of these qua

Related courses (212)

MSE-302: Phase transformations

Ce cours est une introduction aux transformations de phases liquide-solide et solide-solide. Il aborde les aspects thermodynamiques et cristallographiques. Il traite principalement des matériaux métalliques, et établira des ponts vers les céramiques et la minéralogie.

PHYS-316: Statistical physics II

Introduction à la théorie des transitions de phase

PHYS-106(a): General physics : thermodynamics

Le but du cours de Physique générale est de donner à l'étudiant les notions de base nécessaires à la compréhension des phénomènes physiques. L'objectif est atteint lorsque l'étudiant est capable de prévoir quantitativement les conséquences de ces phénomènes avec des outils théoriques appropriés

We consider high-dimensional random optimization problems where the dynamical variables are subjected to nonconvex excluded volume constraints. We focus on the case in which the cost function is a simple quadratic cost and the excluded volume constraints are modeled by a perceptron constraint satisfaction problem. We show that depending on the density of constraints, one can have different situations. If the number of constraints is small, one typically has a phase where the ground state of the cost function is unique and sits on the boundary of the island of configurations allowed by the constraints. In this case, there is a hypostatic number of marginally satisfied constraints. If the number of constraints is increased one enters a glassy phase where the cost function has many local minima sitting again on the boundary of the regions of allowed configurations. At the phase transition point, the total number of marginally satisfied constraints becomes equal to the number of degrees of freedom in the problem and therefore we say that these minima are isostatic. We conjecture that by increasing further the constraints the system stays isostatic up to the point where the volume of available phase space shrinks to zero. We derive our results using the replica method and we also analyze a dynamical algorithm, the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker algorithm, through dynamical mean-field theory and we show how to recover the results of the replica approach in the replica symmetric phase.

Related units (80)

Related lectures (526)

Henrik Moodysson Rønnow, Thorbjørn Skovhus

We present first-principles calculations of the dynamic susceptibility in strained and doped ferromagnetic MnBi using time-dependent density functional theory. In spite of being a metal, MnBi exhibits signatures of strong correlation and a proper description in the framework of density functional theory requires Hubbard corrections to the Mn d orbitals. To permit calculations of the dynamic susceptibility with Hubbard corrections applied to the ground-state electronic structure, we use a consistent rescaling of the exchange-correlation kernel maintaining the delicate balance between the magnon dispersion and the Stoner continuum. We find excellent agreement with the experimentally observed magnon dispersion for pristine MnBi and show that the material undergoes a phase transition to helical order under application of either doping or strain. The presented methodology paves the way for future linear response time-dependent density functional theory studies of magnetic phase transitions, also for the wide range of materials with pronounced static correlation effects that are not accounted for at the local density approximation level.

The objective of this project is to analyse welding processes in high strength low-carbon steel grade S690 in numerical simulation with MORFEO codes and in experiments with a Gleeble® thermo-mechanical simulator instrument. The influence of phase transformation on residual stresses is investigated with simulations on plate to plate and on tube to plate connections. Furthermore, this study investigates the effects of element activation on numerical results and the possibilities to simplify multi-pass welding by lumped models. In addition to literature based descriptions of temperature depending steel properties, experimental tests are conducted to survey the behavior of steel grad S690 at elevated temperatures.

2013