**Are you an EPFL student looking for a semester project?**

Work with us on data science and visualisation projects, and deploy your project as an app on top of GraphSearch.

Concept# Expansion of the universe

Summary

The expansion of the universe is the increase in distance between gravitationally unbound parts of the observable universe with time. It is an intrinsic expansion; the universe does not expand "into" anything and does not require space to exist "outside" it. To any observer in the universe, it appears that all but the nearest galaxies (which are bound by gravity) recede at speeds that are proportional to their distance from the observer, on average. While objects cannot move faster than light, this limitation only applies with respect to local reference frames and does not limit the recession rates of cosmologically distant objects.
Cosmic expansion is a key feature of Big Bang cosmology. It can be modeled mathematically with the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker metric, where it corresponds to an increase in the scale of the spatial part of the universe's spacetime metric (which governs the size and geometry of spacetime). Within this framework, stationary objects separate over ti

Official source

This page is automatically generated and may contain information that is not correct, complete, up-to-date, or relevant to your search query. The same applies to every other page on this website. Please make sure to verify the information with EPFL's official sources.

Related publications

Loading

Related people

Loading

Related units

Loading

Related concepts

Loading

Related courses

Loading

Related lectures

Loading

Related publications (35)

Loading

Loading

Loading

Related people (3)

Related units (4)

Related concepts (135)

Big Bang

The Big Bang event is a physical theory that describes how the universe expanded from an initial state of high density and temperature. Various cosmological models of the Big Bang explain the evolu

Universe

The universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy. The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological description

Redshift

In physics, a redshift is an increase in the wavelength, and corresponding decrease in the frequency and photon energy, of electromagnetic radiation (such as light). The opposite change, a decreas

Related courses (13)

PHYS-402: Astrophysics IV : observational cosmology

Cosmology is the study of the structure and evolution of the universe as a whole. This course describes the principal themes of cosmology, as seen
from the point of view of observations.

PHYS-427: Relativity and cosmology I

Introduce the students to general relativity and its classical tests.

ENV-400: Air pollution and climate change

A survey course describing the origins of air pollution and climate change

Related lectures (43)

Adrien Florio, Daniel Garcia Figueroa, Francisco Torrenti, Wessel Valkenburg

We present a comprehensive discussion on lattice techniques for the simulation of scalar and gauge field dynamics in an expanding universe. After reviewing the continuum formulation of scalar and gauge field interactions in Minkowski and FLRW backgrounds, we introduce the basic tools for the discretization of field theories, including lattice gauge invariant techniques. Following, we discuss and classify numerical algorithms, ranging from methods of O(delta t(2)) accuracy like staggered leapfrog and Verlet integration, to Runge-Kutta methods up to O(delta t(4)) accuracy, and the Yoshida and Gauss-Legendre higher-order integrators, accurate up to O(delta t(10)) We adapt these methods for their use in classical lattice simulations of the non-linear dynamics of scalar and gauge fields in an expanding grid in 3+1 dimensions, including the case of 'self-consistent' expansion sourced by the volume average of the fields' energy and pressure densities. We present lattice formulations of canonical cases of: i) Interacting scalar fields, ii) Abelian U(1) gauge theories, and iii) Non-Abelian SU(2) gauge theories. In all three cases we provide symplectic integrators, with accuracy ranging from O(delta t(2)) up to O(delta t(10)) For each algorithm we provide the form of relevant observables, such as energy density components, field spectra and the Hubble constraint. We note that all our algorithms for gauge theories always respect the Gauss constraint to machine precision, including when 'self-consistent' expansion is considered. As a numerical example we analyze the post-inflationary dynamics of an oscillating inflaton charged under SU(2) x U(1). We note that the present manuscript is meant to be part of the theoretical basis for the code CosmoLattice, a multi-purpose MPI-based package for simulating the non-linear evolution of field theories in an expanding universe, publicly available at http://www.cosrnolattice.net.

2021This thesis is concerned with gauge theories, their complicated vacuum and resulting effects. After an introduction to the subject, it is divided into four parts.
Firstly, we treat the problem of chiral charge dynamics at finite temperature. Quantum field theory predicts a possibility for massless fermions to be transferred into electromagnetic fields with non-zero helicity and vice-versa. This phenomenon has applications ranging from cosmology to heavy-ions physics. We present a numerical investigation from first principles of the resulting complex dynamics and find a qualitative agreement with previous studies based on hydrodynamical approaches but measure rates that differ by up to an order of magnitude. We interpret this effect as contributions coming from small scales not previously taken into account.
Secondly, we present a study of open-boundary conditions in lattice QCD at finite temperature. They were designed to ease up the problem of "topological freezing", which plagues numerical simulations close to the continuum limit. In particular, we determine the length of the "boundary zone" for two different temperatures. We also use the boundary effects to extract screening masses.
Thirdly, we move on to present a compendium of lattice techniques, including some new algorithms, to perform real-time classical simulations of bosonic matter, Abelian and non-Abelian gauge fields in an expanding universe. We also briefly introduce CosmoLattice, a numerical software designed to perform such simulations, which are particularly interesting to study the reheating phase of our universe.
Finally, we study yet another technique to probe non-perturbative sectors of field theories. Namely, we show that one can reconstruct the Schwinger pair production rate, which is the rate of production of particles due to the presence of a strong electric field, using only a few terms of the weak magnetic field expansion. This surprising result is obtained by using techniques coming from the field of resurgence and the analysis of asymptotic expansions.
We conclude this work by presenting some general outlooks, sharing aspects of all these different yet related topics.

José Roberto Canivete Cuissa, Daniel Garcia Figueroa

We present a lattice formulation of an interaction phi/Lambda F (F) over tilde between an axion and some U(1) gauge sector with the following properties: it reproduces the continuum theory up to O(dx(mu)(2)) corrections, it preserves exact gauge invariance and shift symmetry on the lattice, and it is suitable for self-consistent expansion of the Universe. The lattice equations of motion can no longer be solved by explicit methods, but we propose an implicit method to overcome this difficulty, which preserves the relevant system constraints down to arbitrary (tunable) precision. As a first application we study, in a comoving grid in (3 +1) dimensions, the last efolds of axion-inflation with quadratic potential and the preheating stage following afterwards. We fully account for the inhomogeneity and non-linearity of the system, including the gauge field contribution to the expansion rate of the Universe and its backreaction into the axion dynamics. We characterize in detail, as a function of the coupling, the energy transfer from the axion to the gauge field. Two coupling regimes are identified, sub- and super-critical, depending on whether the final energy fraction stored in the gauge field is below or above similar to 50% of the total energy. The Universe is very efficiently reheated for super-critical couplings, rapidly entering in a radiation dominated stage. Our results on preheating confirm previously published results.