**Are you an EPFL student looking for a semester project?**

Work with us on data science and visualisation projects, and deploy your project as an app on top of Graph Search.

Concept# H-space

Summary

In mathematics, an H-space is a homotopy-theoretic version of a generalization of the notion of topological group, in which the axioms on associativity and inverses are removed.
An H-space consists of a topological space X, together with an element e of X and a continuous map μ : X × X → X, such that μ(e, e) = e and the maps x ↦ μ(x, e) and x ↦ μ(e, x) are both homotopic to the identity map through maps sending e to e. This may be thought of as a pointed topological space together with a continuous multiplication for which the basepoint is an identity element up to basepoint-preserving homotopy.
One says that a topological space X is an H-space if there exists e and μ such that the triple (X, e, μ) is an H-space as in the above definition. Alternatively, an H-space may be defined without requiring homotopies to fix the basepoint e, or by requiring e to be an exact identity, without any consideration of homotopy. In the case of a CW complex, all three of these definitions are in fact equivalent.
The standard definition of the fundamental group, together with the fact that it is a group, can be rephrased as saying that the loop space of a pointed topological space has the structure of an H-group, as equipped with the standard operations of concatenation and inversion. Furthermore a continuous basepoint preserving map of pointed topological space induces a H-homomorphism of the corresponding loop spaces; this reflects the group homomorphism on fundamental groups induced by a continuous map.
It is straightforward to verify that, given a pointed homotopy equivalence from a H-space to a pointed topological space, there is a natural H-space structure on the latter space. As such, the existence of an H-space structure on a given space is only dependent on pointed homotopy type.
The multiplicative structure of an H-space adds structure to its homology and cohomology groups. For example, the cohomology ring of a path-connected H-space with finitely generated and free cohomology groups is a Hopf algebra.

Official source

This page is automatically generated and may contain information that is not correct, complete, up-to-date, or relevant to your search query. The same applies to every other page on this website. Please make sure to verify the information with EPFL's official sources.

Related courses (1)

Related publications (1)

Related concepts (3)

Related lectures (6)

MATH-225: Topology II - fundamental groups

On étudie des notions de topologie générale: unions et quotients d'espaces topologiques; on approfondit les notions de revêtements et de groupe fondamental,et d'attachements de cellules et on démontre

Homotopy theory

In mathematics, homotopy theory is a systematic study of situations in which maps can come with homotopies between them. It originated as a topic in algebraic topology but nowadays is studied as an independent discipline. Besides algebraic topology, the theory has also been used in other areas of mathematics such as algebraic geometry (e.g., A1 homotopy theory) and (specifically the study of ). In homotopy theory and algebraic topology, the word "space" denotes a topological space.

Loop space

In topology, a branch of mathematics, the loop space ΩX of a pointed topological space X is the space of (based) loops in X, i.e. continuous pointed maps from the pointed circle S1 to X, equipped with the compact-open topology. Two loops can be multiplied by concatenation. With this operation, the loop space is an A∞-space. That is, the multiplication is homotopy-coherently associative. The set of path components of ΩX, i.e. the set of based-homotopy equivalence classes of based loops in X, is a group, the fundamental group π1(X).

Topological group

In mathematics, topological groups are logically the combination of groups and topological spaces, i.e. they are groups and topological spaces at the same time, such that the continuity condition for the group operations connects these two structures together and consequently they are not independent from each other. Topological groups have been studied extensively in the period of 1925 to 1940. Haar and Weil (respectively in 1933 and 1940) showed that the integrals and Fourier series are special cases of a very wide class of topological groups.

Fundamental Group of a Product

Covers the calculation of the fundamental group of a product using small spaces and compositions.

Topology: Seifert van Kampen Theorem

Explores the Seifert van Kampen theorem and its applications in calculating fundamental groups.

Higher Homotopy Groups: Generalization and Structure

Explores the generalization and structure of higher homotopy groups, including their abelianness, historical context, and properties of H spaces.

The starting point for this project is the article of Kathryn Hess [11]. In this article, a homotopic version of monadic descent is developed. In the classical setting, one constructs a category D(𝕋) of coalgebras in the Eilenberg-Moore category of ...