Concept

Modular exponentiation

Summary
Modular exponentiation is exponentiation performed over a modulus. It is useful in computer science, especially in the field of public-key cryptography, where it is used in both Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange and RSA public/private keys. Modular exponentiation is the remainder when an integer b (the base) is raised to the power e (the exponent), and divided by a positive integer m (the modulus); that is, c = be mod m. From the definition of division, it follows that 0 ≤ c < m. For example, given b = 5, e = 3 and m = 13, dividing 53 = 125 by 13 leaves a remainder of c = 8. Modular exponentiation can be performed with a negative exponent e by finding the modular multiplicative inverse d of b modulo m using the extended Euclidean algorithm. That is: :c = b''e'' mod m = d−''e'' mod m, where e < 0 and b ⋅ d ≡ 1 (mod m). Modular exponentiation is efficient to compute, even for very large integers. On the other hand, computing the modular discrete logarithm – that i
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