**Are you an EPFL student looking for a semester project?**

Work with us on data science and visualisation projects, and deploy your project as an app on top of GraphSearch.

Concept# Modulo

Summary

In computing, the modulo operation returns the remainder or signed remainder of a division, after one number is divided by another (called the modulus of the operation).
Given two positive numbers a and n, a modulo n (often abbreviated as a mod n) is the remainder of the Euclidean division of a by n, where a is the dividend and n is the divisor.
For example, the expression "5 mod 2" would evaluate to 1, because 5 divided by 2 has a quotient of 2 and a remainder of 1, while "9 mod 3" would evaluate to 0, because 9 divided by 3 has a quotient of 3 and a remainder of 0; there is nothing to subtract from 9 after multiplying 3 times 3.
Although typically performed with a and n both being integers, many computing systems now allow other types of numeric operands. The range of values for an integer modulo operation of n is 0 to n − 1 inclusive (a mod 1 is always 0; a mod 0 is undefined, possibly resulting in a division by zero error in some programming languages). See Modular arithmetic for an older and related convention applied in number theory.
When exactly one of a or n is negative, the naive definition breaks down, and programming languages differ in how these values are defined.
In mathematics, the result of the modulo operation is an equivalence class, and any member of the class may be chosen as representative; however, the usual representative is the least positive residue, the smallest non-negative integer that belongs to that class (i.e., the remainder of the Euclidean division). However, other conventions are possible. Computers and calculators have various ways of storing and representing numbers; thus their definition of the modulo operation depends on the programming language or the underlying hardware.
In nearly all computing systems, the quotient q and the remainder r of a divided by n satisfy the following conditions:
However, this still leaves a sign ambiguity if the remainder is non-zero: two possible choices for the remainder occur, one negative and the other positive, and two possible choices for the quotient occur.

Official source

This page is automatically generated and may contain information that is not correct, complete, up-to-date, or relevant to your search query. The same applies to every other page on this website. Please make sure to verify the information with EPFL's official sources.

Related publications (14)

Related concepts (17)

Related courses (8)

Related lectures (37)

Well-defined expression

In mathematics, a well-defined expression or unambiguous expression is an expression whose definition assigns it a unique interpretation or value. Otherwise, the expression is said to be not well defined, ill defined or ambiguous. A function is well defined if it gives the same result when the representation of the input is changed without changing the value of the input. For instance, if takes real numbers as input, and if does not equal then is not well defined (and thus not a function).

Modular exponentiation

Modular exponentiation is exponentiation performed over a modulus. It is useful in computer science, especially in the field of public-key cryptography, where it is used in both Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange and RSA public/private keys. Modular exponentiation is the remainder when an integer b (the base) is raised to the power e (the exponent), and divided by a positive integer m (the modulus); that is, c = be mod m. From the definition of division, it follows that 0 ≤ c < m.

Modular multiplicative inverse

In mathematics, particularly in the area of arithmetic, a modular multiplicative inverse of an integer a is an integer x such that the product ax is congruent to 1 with respect to the modulus m. In the standard notation of modular arithmetic this congruence is written as which is the shorthand way of writing the statement that m divides (evenly) the quantity ax − 1, or, put another way, the remainder after dividing ax by the integer m is 1.

CS-101: Advanced information, computation, communication I

Discrete mathematics is a discipline with applications to almost all areas of study. It provides a set of indispensable tools to computer science in particular. This course reviews (familiar) topics a

COM-102: Advanced information, computation, communication II

Text, sound, and images are examples of information sources stored in our computers and/or communicated over the Internet. How do we measure, compress, and protect the informatin they contain?

COM-401: Cryptography and security

This course introduces the basics of cryptography. We review several types of cryptographic primitives, when it is safe to use them and how to select the appropriate security parameters. We detail how

Number Theory: Modular Arithmetic

Explores modular arithmetic, congruence, and number manipulation in a mathematical context, showcasing the power of modular reduction and the tricks of casting out nines.

Class Hierarchies: Pattern Matching

Explores class hierarchies, case classes, enums, pattern matching, and function values in Scala.

Binary RepresentationMOOC: Understanding Microcontrollers

Covers the binary number system, limited size binary numbers, signed numbers, and hexadecimal representation.

Jacques Thévenaz, Caroline Lassueur

We examine how, in prime characteristic p, the group of endotrivial modules of a finite group G and the group of endotrivial modules of a quotient of G modulo a normal subgroup of order prime to p are related. There is always an inflation map, but examples ...

2017Basil Duval, Yann Camenen, Emiliano Fable, Alessandro Bortolon

The progress made in understanding spontaneous toroidal rotation reversals in tokamaks is reviewed and current ideas to solve this ten-year-old puzzle are explored. The paper includes a summarial synthesis of the experimental observations in AUG, C-Mod, KS ...

The calculation of the inverse scalelengths $R/L_T$, $R/L_n$ may depend on the choice of the radial variable, depending on the definition of the scalelength. The value of $\lambda_T$ and $\lambda_n$, as defined in [O. Sauter {\it et al}, Phys. Plasmas {\bf ...