Concept

Zhangjiakou

Summary
Zhangjiakou ('dʒɑːŋdʒi'ɑː'koʊ; ; zhang1-jya1-kou3), also known as Kalgan and by several other names, is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Hebei province in Northern China, bordering Beijing to the southeast, Inner Mongolia to the north and west, and Shanxi to the southwest. By 2019, its population was 4,650,000 inhabitants on , divided into 17 Counties and Districts. The built-up (or metro) area made of Qiaoxi, Qiaodong, Chongli, Xuanhua, Xiahuayuan Districts largely being conurbated had 1,500,000 inhabitants in 2019 on . Since ancient times, Zhangjiakou has been a stronghold of military significance and vied for by multiple sides, hence nicknamed the Northern Gate of Beijing. Due to its strategic position on several important transport arteries, it is a critical node for travel between Hebei and Inner Mongolia and connecting northwest China, Mongolia, and Beijing. Dajingmen, an important gate and junction of the Great Wall of China is located here. In the south, Zhangjiakou is largely cultivated for agricultural use. In the north, Bashang is a part of the Mongolian plateau and dominated by grasslands. The forest coverage reaches 37%, earning Zhangjiakou the title of National Forest City. According to the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Zhangjiakou has the freshest air and the least PM 2.5 pollution of all Chinese cities north of the Yellow River. Zhangjiakou also possesses 4.6% of China's wind energy resources, and the city ranks second in solar energy use. Zhangjiakou was one of the host cities at the 2022 Winter Olympics. Zhangjiakou (Chang-chia-k'ou) is written 张家口 in simplified Chinese and 張家口 in traditional Chinese. It is Zhāngjiākǒu in pinyin, the name meaning "Zhang family pass." Older names for the town in Chinese include Zhāngyuán (張垣), used in the Republican era. Zhangjiakou was historically known to Europeans as Kalgan (喀拉干, Kālāgàn) until the mid 20th century. This name derives from the Mongolian name of the city, , "Čiɣulaltu qaɣalɣa" (Classical Mongolian), "Chuulalt haalga" (modern Mongolian) or shorter, , "Qaghalghan" (Classical Mongolian), "Haalgan" (modern Mongolian), which means "the gate" (in the Great Wall).
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