Concept

# Total least squares

Summary
In applied statistics, total least squares is a type of errors-in-variables regression, a least squares data modeling technique in which observational errors on both dependent and independent variables are taken into account. It is a generalization of Deming regression and also of orthogonal regression, and can be applied to both linear and non-linear models. The total least squares approximation of the data is generically equivalent to the best, in the Frobenius norm, low-rank approximation of the data matrix. In the least squares method of data modeling, the objective function, S, is minimized, where r is the vector of residuals and W is a weighting matrix. In linear least squares the model contains equations which are linear in the parameters appearing in the parameter vector , so the residuals are given by There are m observations in y and n parameters in β with m>n. X is a m×n matrix whose elements are either constants or functions of the independent variables, x. The weight matrix W is, ideally, the inverse of the variance-covariance matrix of the observations y. The independent variables are assumed to be error-free. The parameter estimates are found by setting the gradient equations to zero, which results in the normal equations Now, suppose that both x and y are observed subject to error, with variance-covariance matrices and respectively. In this case the objective function can be written as where and are the residuals in x and y respectively. Clearly these residuals cannot be independent of each other, but they must be constrained by some kind of relationship. Writing the model function as , the constraints are expressed by m condition equations. Thus, the problem is to minimize the objective function subject to the m constraints. It is solved by the use of Lagrange multipliers. After some algebraic manipulations, the result is obtained. or alternatively where M is the variance-covariance matrix relative to both independent and dependent variables. When the data errors are uncorrelated, all matrices M and W are diagonal.
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