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Course# ME-280: Fluid mechanics (for GM)

Summary

Basic lecture in fluid mechanics

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Instructor

Tobias Schneider

Tobias Schneider is an assistant professor in the School of Engineering at EPFL, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne. He received his doctoral degree in theoretical physics in 2007 from the University of Marburg in Germany working on the transition to turbulence in pipe flow. He then joined Harvard University as a postdoctoral fellow. In 2012 Tobias Schneider returned to Europe to establish an independent Max-Planck research group at the Max-Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization in Goettingen. Since 2014, he is working at EPFL, where he teaches fluid mechanics and heads the 'Emergent Complexity in Physical Systems' laboratory. Tobias Schneider's research is focused on nonlinear mechanics with specific emphasis on spatial turbulent-laminar patterns in fluid flows transitioning to turbulence. His lab combines dynamical systems and pattern-formation theory with large-scale computer simulations. Together with his team, Schneider develops computational tools and continuation methods for studying the bifurcation structure of nonlinear differential equations such as those describing the flow of a fluid. These tools are published as open-source software at channelflow.ch. Publications: Google Scholar

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In physics, physical chemistry and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids—liquids and gases. It has several subdisciplines, including aerodynamics (the study of air and other gases in motion) and hydrodynamics (the study of liquids in motion). Fluid dynamics has a wide range of applications, including calculating forces and moments on aircraft, determining the mass flow rate of petroleum through pipelines, predicting weather patterns, understanding nebulae in interstellar space and modelling fission weapon detonation.

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A Newtonian fluid is a fluid in which the viscous stresses arising from its flow are at every point linearly correlated to the local strain rate — the rate of change of its deformation over time. Stresses are proportional to the rate of change of the fluid's velocity vector. A fluid is Newtonian only if the tensors that describe the viscous stress and the strain rate are related by a constant viscosity tensor that does not depend on the stress state and velocity of the flow.

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Conservation of mass

In physics and chemistry, the law of conservation of mass or principle of mass conservation states that for any system closed to all transfers of matter and energy, the mass of the system must remain constant over time, as the system's mass cannot change, so the quantity can neither be added nor be removed. Therefore, the quantity of mass is conserved over time. The law implies that mass can neither be created nor destroyed, although it may be rearranged in space, or the entities associated with it may be changed in form.

Introduces the fundamentals of fluid mechanics and its practical applications in engineering and physical phenomena.

Introduces fluid dynamics, covering conservation laws, viscosity, and fluid properties.

Explores viscosity in Newtonian fluids, discussing shear stress, shear strain rate, and compressibility, with examples of shear thickening and shear thinning behaviors.