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Lecture# Vector spaces and norms

Description

This lecture introduces vector spaces and norms, focusing on functions defined on sets and differentiable functions. It covers the chain rule, implicit differentiation, optimization problems, integration, and ODEs. The concept of scalar product, norms, and the Euclidean norm are also discussed.

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Related concepts (69)

Instructors (2)

MATH-431: Theory of stochastic calculus

Introduction to the mathematical theory of stochastic calculus: construction of stochastic Ito integral, proof of Ito formula, introduction to stochastic differential equations, Girsanov theorem and F

Implicit function

In mathematics, an implicit equation is a relation of the form where R is a function of several variables (often a polynomial). For example, the implicit equation of the unit circle is An implicit function is a function that is defined by an implicit equation, that relates one of the variables, considered as the value of the function, with the others considered as the arguments. For example, the equation of the unit circle defines y as an implicit function of x if −1 ≤ x ≤ 1, and y is restricted to nonnegative values.

Differentiable function

In mathematics, a differentiable function of one real variable is a function whose derivative exists at each point in its domain. In other words, the graph of a differentiable function has a non-vertical tangent line at each interior point in its domain. A differentiable function is smooth (the function is locally well approximated as a linear function at each interior point) and does not contain any break, angle, or cusp. If x0 is an interior point in the domain of a function f, then f is said to be differentiable at x0 if the derivative exists.

Optimization problem

In mathematics, computer science and economics, an optimization problem is the problem of finding the best solution from all feasible solutions. Optimization problems can be divided into two categories, depending on whether the variables are continuous or discrete: An optimization problem with discrete variables is known as a discrete optimization, in which an object such as an integer, permutation or graph must be found from a countable set.

Mathematical optimization

Mathematical optimization (alternatively spelled optimisation) or mathematical programming is the selection of a best element, with regard to some criterion, from some set of available alternatives. It is generally divided into two subfields: discrete optimization and continuous optimization. Optimization problems arise in all quantitative disciplines from computer science and engineering to operations research and economics, and the development of solution methods has been of interest in mathematics for centuries.

Chain rule

In calculus, the chain rule is a formula that expresses the derivative of the composition of two differentiable functions f and g in terms of the derivatives of f and g. More precisely, if is the function such that for every x, then the chain rule is, in Lagrange's notation, or, equivalently, The chain rule may also be expressed in Leibniz's notation. If a variable z depends on the variable y, which itself depends on the variable x (that is, y and z are dependent variables), then z depends on x as well, via the intermediate variable y.

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