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Lecture# Relative Homology: Exact Sequence

Description

This lecture covers the long exact sequence of relative homology groups, induced homomorphisms, excision, and the proof of a key theorem. It explains the concept of relative chains, chain complexes, and homology gaps, leading to a short exact sequence of chain maps.

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In course

MATH-323: Algebraic topology

Homology is one of the most important tools to study topological spaces and it plays an important role in many fields of mathematics. The aim of this course is to introduce this notion, understand it

Related concepts (41)

Relative homology

In algebraic topology, a branch of mathematics, the (singular) homology of a topological space relative to a subspace is a construction in singular homology, for pairs of spaces. The relative homology is useful and important in several ways. Intuitively, it helps determine what part of an absolute homology group comes from which subspace. Given a subspace , one may form the short exact sequence where denotes the singular chains on the space X. The boundary map on descends to and therefore induces a boundary map on the quotient.

Homology (mathematics)

In mathematics, homology is a general way of associating a sequence of algebraic objects, such as abelian groups or modules, with other mathematical objects such as topological spaces. Homology groups were originally defined in algebraic topology. Similar constructions are available in a wide variety of other contexts, such as abstract algebra, groups, Lie algebras, Galois theory, and algebraic geometry. The original motivation for defining homology groups was the observation that two shapes can be distinguished by examining their holes.

Exact sequence

An exact sequence is a sequence of morphisms between objects (for example, groups, rings, modules, and, more generally, objects of an ) such that the of one morphism equals the kernel of the next. In the context of group theory, a sequence of groups and group homomorphisms is said to be exact at if . The sequence is called exact if it is exact at each for all , i.e., if the image of each homomorphism is equal to the kernel of the next. The sequence of groups and homomorphisms may be either finite or infinite.

Puppe sequence

In mathematics, the Puppe sequence is a construction of homotopy theory, so named after Dieter Puppe. It comes in two forms: a long exact sequence, built from the mapping fibre (a fibration), and a long coexact sequence, built from the mapping cone (which is a cofibration). Intuitively, the Puppe sequence allows us to think of homology theory as a functor that takes spaces to long-exact sequences of groups. It is also useful as a tool to build long exact sequences of relative homotopy groups.

Homological algebra

Homological algebra is the branch of mathematics that studies homology in a general algebraic setting. It is a relatively young discipline, whose origins can be traced to investigations in combinatorial topology (a precursor to algebraic topology) and abstract algebra (theory of modules and syzygies) at the end of the 19th century, chiefly by Henri Poincaré and David Hilbert. Homological algebra is the study of homological functors and the intricate algebraic structures that they entail; its development was closely intertwined with the emergence of .

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